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See also:
U+7236, 父
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7236

[U+7235]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7237]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
4 strokes
Stroke order
父-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 88, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金大 (CK), four-corner 80400, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #88, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 690, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19721
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1103, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2039, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7236

Further reading[edit]


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠇑

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
父-oracle.svg 父-bronze.svg 父-silk.svg 父-seal.svg 父-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – A hand holding a stone, referring to a man working with a stone axe.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *p/ba (male; father).

Regular development from Middle Chinese would lead to the labiodental in Mandarin, but the colloquial word resisted the sound changes and is now written as (), with the () phonetic component added to it to indicate the unchanged bilabial initial.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: hô - literary.
Note:
  • hu6 - literary;
  • bê6 - semantic (original character is ).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bɨoX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bioX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /bioX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /buə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /bioX/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjuX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[N-p](r)aʔ/
    English father

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3504
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*baʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. father
      /   ―  qīn  ―  (formal) father
        ―    ―  parents; father and mother
        ―    ―  father and son
        ―    ―  father and daughter
      /   ―  bèi  ―  one's father's generation
        ―  jiā  ―  (humble) my father
        ―  shēng  ―  biological father
      /   ―  yǎng  ―  adoptive father
      /   ―    ―  stepfather
        ―  tiān  ―  (Christianity) Heavenly Father
      /   ―  guó  ―  father of a nation; (specifically) Father of the Republic (Sun Yat-sen)
      雜交水稻 / 杂交水稻  ―  zájiāo shuǐdào zhī   ―  (specifically) Father of Hybrid Rice (Yuan Longping)
      Antonym: ()
    2. Used to address a male elder member of a family.
        ―    ―  parental grandfather (one's father's father)
        ―    ―  paternal uncle (father's elder brother)
        ―  shū  ―  paternal uncle (father's younger brother)
        ―  yuè  ―  father-in-law (wife's father)
        ―  jiù  ―  maternal uncle (mother's brother)
        ―    ―  maternal uncle (husband of mother's sister)
        ―    ―  paternal uncle (husband of father's sister)
      Antonym: ()
    Synonyms[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pɨoX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pioX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pioX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /puə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /pioX/
    Wang
    Li
    /pĭuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pi̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pjuX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*p(r)aʔ/
    English (respectful suffix in male names)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 3500
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*paʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary, respectful) old man; elderly man
      /   ―    ―  old fisherman
        ―  tián  ―  old farmer
    2. (literary) Alternative form of (, “honorific suffix used after a man's name; courtesy name”).
      梁甫山  ―  Liángshān (Liángfǔshān)  ―  Mount Liangfu (alternately, Mount Liangfu) (in Shandong, China)
    3. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちち
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese (titi).

    Still in modern usage.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ちち) (chichi

    1. one's own father (male parent)
    2. (by extension, figuratively) a father figure (male initiator or founder of something)
      (きん)(だい)()(がく)(ちち)
      kindai igaku no chichi
      the father of modern medicine
    3. (Christianity) God, the Holy Father
    Usage notes[edit]

    When describing a family member, only used to reference one's own father; not used as a standalone noun to refer to someone else's father.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちち > てて
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Appears in the Utsubo Monogatari of roughly 970 CE.[4]

    Shift from chichi.[4][5]

    Usage continued until at least the early 1700s.[4]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (てて) (tete

    1. (archaic) one's own father
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とと
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Appears in the Nippo Jisho of 1603.[4]

    Originally a shift from chichi or tete in baby talk, used by children to refer to their own father.

    Still in modern usage.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (とと) (toto

    1. (childish) one's own father: daddy
      Coordinate term: (kaka)
    2. (by later extension) a husband, master of the house
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちゃん
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    /totosan//totːɕan//t͡ɕan/

    Likely a contraction of 父さん (toto-san).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ちゃん) (chan

    1. (informal, possibly dialect) one's own father [from Edo to early-Meiji period]
    2. (by later extension) the head or master of an establishment such as a teahouse, boathouse, etc.

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    goon

    The “father” and “uncle” affixes is from Middle Chinese (MC bɨoX).

    The “old man” affix is from Middle Chinese (MC pɨoX).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    () (fu

    1. father
    2. father figure
    3. uncle
    4. old man, elderly man
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kan’yōon

    From a corruption of Middle Chinese (MC pɨoX).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    () (ho

    1. (honorific) old man
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かそ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    ⟨kaso2 → */kasə//kaso//kazo/

    From Old Japanese. Appears in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE as unvoiced kaso.[1][4] Further derivation unknown.[4]

    May have fallen out of use by 1603, when neither kaso nor kazo are found in the Nippo Jisho. Kaso would be here as the sixth entry from the bottom on the left, and kazo would be here as the eighth from the bottom on the right.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Noun[edit]

    (かぞ) (kazo

    1. (obsolete) one's own father
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 Minamoto, Shitagō; Kyōto Daigaku Bungakubu Kokugogaku Kokubungaku Kenkyūshitu (931–938) Shohon Shūsei Wamyō Ruijushō: Honbunhen (in Japanese), Kyōto: Rinsen, published 1968, →ISBN.
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    5. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    6. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC bɨoX, “father”). Recorded as Middle Korean 부〮 (Yale: pwu) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 아비 (abi bu))

    1. Hanja form? of (father).
    2. Hanja form? of (elderly male relative).
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC pɨoX, “old man; elderly man”).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 사내 (sanae bo))

    1. (literary) Hanja form? of (respectful term for an elderly man).
      Synonym: ( (bo))
    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Reduplication of ti below.[1]

    Noun[edit]

    (titi) (kana ちち)

    1. one's own father
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 13, poem 3312), text here
        ...奥床仁母者睡有外床丹者寐有...
        ...okuto2ko2 ni papa pa inetari to1do2ko2 ni titi pa inetari...
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      Coordinate term: (omo, papa)
    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (chichi, tete, toto)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Eastern dialect of titi above.

    Noun[edit]

    (sisi) (kana しし)

    1. (regional, Northern Eastern Old Japanese) one's own father
      Antonym: (amo)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *ti.

    Noun[edit]

    (ti) (kana )

    1. (honorific) a term of respect for males
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 48)
        加志能布邇余久須袁都久理余久須邇迦美斯意富美岐宇麻良爾岐許志母知袁勢麻呂賀
        kasi no2 pu ni yo2kusu wo tukuri yo2kusu ni kami1si opomi1ki1 umara ni ki1ko2simo2tiwose maro2 ga ti
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
        Note: Poem 39 of the Nihon Shoki is similar to this but replaces 迦美斯 (kami1si) with 伽綿蘆 (kame1ru).
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Unknown.[2]

    Noun[edit]

    (kaso2) (kana かそ)

    1. one's own father
      • 720, Nihon Shoki (Emperor Ninken, entry 11: sixth year, ninth month in autumn)
        菱城邑人鹿父〈鹿父、人名也。俗、呼父為柯曾〉聞而向前曰「何哭之哀甚、若此乎」。
        A man of Pisikï village, Kakasö (his name is Kakasö; it was customary to call one's father kasö) heard [the woman's] cries, turned to her, and asked, “Why these cries of grief, young one?”
      Antonym: (iro2pa)
    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (kazo)

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: phụ ((phù)()(thiết))[1][2][3][4]
    : Nôm readings: phụ[1][3][5], phủ[1]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC bɨoX, “father”).

    Affix[edit]

     (phụ)

    1. Hán tự form of phụ (father).
    2. Hán tự form of phụ (elderly male relative).

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]