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See also:
U+7236, 父
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7236

[U+7235]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7237]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
父-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 88, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金大 (CK), four-corner 80400, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #88, .

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 690, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19721
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1103, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2039, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7236

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
父-oracle.svg 父-bronze.svg 父-silk.svg 父-seal.svg 父-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*paː, *paːs
*paːs
*paːs
*pʰaːs
*paʔ
*paʔ, *baʔ
*paʔ, *baʔ
*baʔ
*baʔ

Pictogram (象形) – A hand holding a stone, referring to a man working with a stone axe.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *p/ba (male; father).

Regular development from Middle Chinese would lead to the labiodental in Mandarin, but the colloquial word resisted the sound changes and is now written as (), with the () phonetic component added to it to indicate the unchanged bilabial initial.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • hu6 - literary;
  • bê6 - semantic (original character is ).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bɨoX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bioX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /bioX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /buə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /bioX/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjuX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[N-p](r)aʔ/
    English father

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3504
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*baʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. father
      /   ―  qīn  ―  [formal] father
        ―    ―  parents; father and mother
        ―    ―  father and son
        ―    ―  father and daughter
      /   ―  bèi  ―  one's father's generation
        ―  jiā  ―  [humble] my father
        ―  shēng  ―  biological father
      /   ―  yǎng  ―  adoptive father
      /   ―    ―  stepfather
        ―  tiān  ―  [Christianity] Heavenly Father
      /   ―  guó  ―  father of a nation; [specifically] Father of the Republic (Sun Yat-sen)
      雜交水稻 / 杂交水稻  ―  zájiāo shuǐdào zhī   ―  Father of Hybrid Rice
    2. Used to address a male elder member of a family.
        ―    ―  parental grandfather (one's father's father)
        ―    ―  paternal uncle (father's elder brother)
        ―  shū  ―  uncle (father's younger brother)
        ―  yuè  ―  father-in-law (wife's father)
        ―  jiù  ―  maternal uncle (mother's brother)
        ―    ―  maternal uncle (husband of mother's sister)
        ―    ―  paternal uncle (husband of father's sister)

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 爸爸 (“dad (face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 父親
    Mandarin Beijing 爸爸, ,
    Taiwan 爸爸,
    Harbin 爸爸, ,
    Shenyang 爸爸
    Jinan 爸爸, , Hui, 大大 Hui
    Muping , 爸爸
    Luoyang , 爸爸
    Jiedian ,
    Xi'an , Hui
    Zhengzhou , Hui or suburbs
    Xining 阿達, 達達,
    Xuzhou 答答, 爸爸
    Yinchuan , 爸爸
    Lanzhou , 爸爸
    Ürümqi 爸爸, , 爹爹, , 阿達 Hui
    Wuhan 爸爸, dated, 伯伯 dated
    Huanggang
    Chengdu 爸爸,
    Guiyang 爸爸, dated
    Liuzhou , 阿爸,
    Kunming 爸爸
    Yangzhou 爸爸, 爹爹
    Nanjing , 爸爸, 伯伯
    Hefei 伯伯
    Nantong , 父啊,
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 達達, , 阿達
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿爸, 爸爸, 爹哋
    Hong Kong 阿爸, 爸爸, , 爹哋
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 阿爸
    Foshan 阿爸
    Shunde 阿爹
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 阿爸
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 阿爸
    Doumen 阿爸
    Taishan 阿爸, 阿爹, 阿爺
    Kaiping (Chikan) 阿爹
    Dongguan 阿爸, 阿叔, 老豆, 爸爸 childish, 爹哋 childish, 爸B childish, 阿大 rare
    Yangjiang 阿爸
    Kuala Lumpur 老豆, 阿爸, 爹哋
    Gan Nanchang 爸爸,
    Lichuan , 伯伯
    Pingxiang 爺爺, 爹爹, 爸爸
    Hakka Meixian 阿爸
    Xingning 阿爸
    Huidong 阿爸
    Qujiang 阿爸
    Xiaosanjiang 阿爸
    Changting 爹爹, 哥哥
    Pingyu
    Wuping 阿哥,
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 哥哥
    Yudu 爸爸
    Ruijin 爹爹, 爹子
    Shicheng , 爸爸
    Shangyou 爸爸
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿爸
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿爸
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿爸
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿爸
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 阿爸
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿怙
    Hong Kong 阿爸
    Senai 阿爸
    Sabah (Longchuan) 阿爸
    Singkawang 阿爸
    Huizhou Jixi 伯伯,
    Shexian , ,
    Tunxi , ,
    Xiuning , 阿爺
    Yixian 爹爹, 爸爸, 官人
    Qimen 爺兒, 伯兒
    Wuyuan 爸爸,
    Jin Taiyuan 爸爸, 大大, ,
    Pingyao
    Min Bei Jian'ou 爸爸, 爺爺 dated
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依爹, 依爸, 依爺 dated
    Matsu 依爹
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿爸, 阿叔 euphemistic
    Quanzhou 阿爸, 阿叔 euphemistic
    Zhangzhou 阿爸, 阿官, 阿叔 euphemistic, 娘爸 dated
    Taipei 爸爸, 阿爸
    Kaohsiung 爸爸, 阿丈, 阿爸, 阿將
    Tainan 多桑, 爸爸, 阿叔, 阿爸, 俺二仔, 俺爹
    Taichung 爸爸
    Hsinchu 阿爹, 爸爸
    Lukang 阿府, 阿爸
    Sanxia 老歲仔, 老的, 阿爸
    Yilan 阿丈, 阿叔, 阿爸
    Kinmen 俺爹, 俺爸
    Magong 阿爸, , 二仔, 爸爸
    Penang 阿爸, , 爸爸
    Philippines (Manila) 爸爸
    Chaozhou 阿爸, 阿爹
    Haikou 阿爹, 阿兄, 阿官, 阿爸
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning , 數字, 數老, 阿叔 dated
    Wu Shanghai 爸爸, 老爸, 爹爹 dated, 阿伯 dated
    Suzhou 爹爹
    Hangzhou , 阿伯, 爸爸
    Wenzhou 阿爸, 阿伯, 阿大
    Chongming 爹爹, 阿爹 uncommon, , 爺爺
    Danyang 爹爹, , 爸爸
    Jinhua 伯伯, 爹爹, 爸爸
    Tangxi
    Ningbo 阿伯, 爸爸
    Xiang Changsha 爹爹, 爺爺,
    Shuangfeng 爹爹,
    Loudi 爹爹

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pɨoX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pioX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pioX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /puə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /pioX/
    Wang
    Li
    /pĭuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pi̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pjuX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*p(r)aʔ/
    English (respectful suffix in male names)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 3500
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*paʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary, respectful) old man; elderly man
      /   ―    ―  old fisherman
        ―  tián  ―  old farmer
    2. (literary) Alternative form of (, “honorific suffix used after a man's name; courtesy name”).
      梁甫山  ―  Liángshān (Liángfǔshān)  ―  Mount Liangfu (alternately, Mount Liangfu) (in Shandong, China)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. father

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Antonyms[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちち
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ちち, rōmaji chichi)

    1. father
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4402)
        知波夜布留 賀美乃美佐賀尓 奴佐麻都里 伊波布伊能知波 意毛知々我多米
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 115:
        父爲考、和名知々、日本紀私記云加曾

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From chichi. Eastern dialect.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana しし, rōmaji shishi)

    1. father
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4376)
        多妣由岐尓 由久等之良受弖 阿母志々尓 己等麻乎佐受弖 伊麻叙久夜之気
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4378)
        都久比夜波 須具波由気等毛 阿母志々可 多麻乃須我多波 和須例西奈布母

    Etymology 3[edit]

    From chichi.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana てて, rōmaji tete)

    1. father
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 649)
        Tete. l, chichi. テテ. まはは, チチ (てて. または, 父) 父親.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    From chichi.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana とと, rōmaji toto)

    1. a childish term for one's father; daddy
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 670)
        Toto. トト (とと) 父. これは子どもの使う語である.

    Etymology 5[edit]

    /kaso2/: *[kasə] > [kaso].

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かそ, rōmaji kaso)

    1. father
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 115:
        父爲考、和名知々、日本紀私記云加曾

    Etymology 6[edit]

    From kaso. Medial -s- voices to /kazo/.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かぞ, rōmaji kazo)

    1. father

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (bu, bo)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): , (revised: bu, bo, McCune–Reischauer: pu, po, Yale: pu, po)
      • Name (hangeul): 아비, (revised: abi, ja, McCune–Reischauer: abi, cha, Yale: api, ca)
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (phụ, bố)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.