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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
父-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 88 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金大 (CK), four-corner 80400)

  1. KangXi radical 88

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 690, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19721
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1103, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2039, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7236

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
父-oracle.svg 父-bronze.svg 父-silk.svg 父-bigseal.svg 父-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – A hand holding a stone, referring to a man working with a stone axe.

Etymology[edit]

Old and Middle Chinese word for “father”: (OC *paʔ, *baʔ).

Regular development from Middle Chinese would lead to the labiodental in Mandarin, but the colloquial word resisted the sound changes and is now written as (), with the () phonetic component added to it to indicate the unchanged bilabial initial.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (1) (3)
Final () (24) (24)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨoX/ /bɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/pioX/ /bioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/pioX/ /bioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puə̆X/ /buə̆X/
Li
Rong
/pioX/ /bioX/
Wang
Li
/pĭuX/ /bĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯uX/ /bʱi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjuX › ‹ bjuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*p(r)aʔ/ /*[N-p](r)aʔ/
English (respectful suffix in male names) father

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 3500 3504
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*paʔ/ /*baʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. father

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. father

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ちち
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ちち, romaji chichi)

  1. father
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4402)
      知波夜布留 賀美乃美佐賀尓 奴佐麻都里 伊波布伊能知波 意毛知々我多米
    • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 115:
      父爲考、和名知々、日本紀私記云加曾

Etymology 2[edit]

From chichi. Eastern dialect.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しし, romaji shishi)

  1. father
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4376)
      多妣由岐尓 由久等之良受弖 阿母志々尓 己等麻乎佐受弖 伊麻叙久夜之気
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4378)
      都久比夜波 須具波由気等毛 阿母志々可 多麻乃須我多波 和須例西奈布母

Etymology 3[edit]

From chichi.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana てて, romaji tete)

  1. father
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 649)
      Tete. l, chichi. テテ. まはは, チチ (てて. または, 父) 父親.

Etymology 4[edit]

From chichi.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana とと, romaji toto)

  1. a childish term for one's father; daddy
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 670)
      Toto. トト (とと) 父. これは子どもの使う語である.

Etymology 5[edit]

/kaso2/: *[kasə] > [kaso].

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana かそ, romaji kaso)

  1. father
    • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 115:
      父爲考、和名知々、日本紀私記云加曾

Etymology 6[edit]

From kaso. Medial -s- voices to /kazo/.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana かぞ, romaji kazo)

  1. father

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(bu, bo)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): ,  (revised: bu, bo, McCune-Reischauer: pu, po, Yale: pu, po)
  • Name (hangeul): 아비,  (revised: abi, ja, McCune-Reischauer: abi, cha, Yale: api, ca)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phụ, bố)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.