Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also:
U+7236, 父
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7236

[U+7235]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7237]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
父-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 88, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金大 (CK), four-corner 80400, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #88, .

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 690, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19721
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1103, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2039, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7236

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
父-oracle.svg 父-bronze.svg 父-silk.svg 父-seal.svg 父-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*paː, *paːs
*paːs
*paːs
*pʰaːs
*paʔ
*paʔ, *baʔ
*paʔ, *baʔ
*baʔ
*baʔ

Pictogram (象形) – A hand holding a stone, referring to a man working with a stone axe.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *p/ba (male; father).

Regular development from Middle Chinese would lead to the labiodental in Mandarin, but the colloquial word resisted the sound changes and is now written as (), with the () phonetic component added to it to indicate the unchanged bilabial initial.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • hu6 - literary;
  • bê6 - semantic (original character is ).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bɨoX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bioX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /bioX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /buə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /bioX/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjuX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[N-p](r)aʔ/
    English father

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3504
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*baʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. father
      /   ―  qīn  ―  [formal] father
        ―    ―  parents; father and mother
        ―    ―  father and son
        ―    ―  father and daughter
      /   ―  bèi  ―  one's father's generation
        ―  jiā  ―  [humble] my father
        ―  shēng  ―  biological father
      /   ―  yǎng  ―  adoptive father
      /   ―    ―  stepfather
        ―  tiān  ―  [Christianity] Heavenly Father
      /   ―  guó  ―  father of a nation; [specifically] Father of the Republic (Sun Yat-sen)
      雜交水稻 / 杂交水稻  ―  zájiāo shuǐdào zhī   ―  Father of Hybrid Rice
    2. Used to address a male elder member of a family.
        ―    ―  parental grandfather (one's father's father)
        ―    ―  paternal uncle (father's elder brother)
        ―  shū  ―  uncle (father's younger brother)
        ―  yuè  ―  father-in-law (wife's father)
        ―  jiù  ―  maternal uncle (mother's brother)
        ―    ―  maternal uncle (husband of mother's sister)
        ―    ―  paternal uncle (husband of father's sister)

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 爸爸 (“dad (face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 父親
    Mandarin Beijing 爸爸
    Taiwan 爸爸
    Harbin 爸爸
    Shenyang 爸爸
    Jinan 爸爸 Hui大大 Hui
    Muping 爸爸
    Luoyang 爸爸
    Jiedian
    Xi'an Hui
    Zhengzhou Hui or suburbs
    Xining 阿達達達
    Xuzhou 答答爸爸
    Yinchuan 爸爸
    Lanzhou 爸爸
    Ürümqi 爸爸爹爹阿達 Hui
    Wuhan 爸爸 dated伯伯 dated
    Huanggang
    Chengdu 爸爸
    Guiyang 爸爸 dated
    Liuzhou 阿爸
    Kunming 爸爸
    Yangzhou 爸爸爹爹
    Nanjing 爸爸伯伯
    Hefei 伯伯
    Nantong 父啊
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 達達阿達
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿爸爸爸爹哋
    Hong Kong 阿爸爸爸爹哋
    Shunde 阿爹
    Foshan 阿爸
    Zhongshan 阿爸
    Dongguan 阿爸阿叔老豆爸爸 childish爹哋 childish爸B childish阿大 rare
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 阿爸
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 阿爸
    Doumen 阿爸
    Taishan 阿爸阿爹阿爺
    Kaiping 阿爹
    Yangjiang 阿爸
    Kuala Lumpur 老豆阿爸爹哋
    Gan Nanchang 爸爸
    Lichuan 伯伯
    Pingxiang 爺爺爹爹爸爸
    Hakka Meixian 阿爸
    Xingning 阿爸
    Huidong 阿爸
    Qujiang 阿爸
    Xiaosanjiang 阿爸
    Changting 爹爹哥哥
    Pingyu
    Wuping 阿哥
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 哥哥
    Yudu 爸爸
    Ruijin 爹爹爹子
    Shicheng 爸爸
    Shangyou 爸爸
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿爸
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿爸
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿爸
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿爸
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 阿爸
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿怙
    Hong Kong 阿爸
    Senai 阿爸
    Sabah (Longchuan) 阿爸
    Singkawang 阿爸
    Huizhou Jixi 伯伯
    Shexian
    Tunxi
    Xiuning 阿爺
    Yixian 爹爹爸爸官人
    Qimen 爺兒伯兒
    Wuyuan 爸爸
    Jin Taiyuan 爸爸大大
    Pingyao
    Min Bei Jian'ou 爸爸爺爺 dated
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依爹依爸依爺 dated
    Matsu 依爹
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿爸阿叔 euphemistic
    Quanzhou 阿爸阿叔 euphemistic
    Zhangzhou 阿爸阿官阿叔 euphemistic娘爸 dated
    Taipei 爸爸阿爸
    Kaohsiung 爸爸阿丈阿爸阿將
    Tainan 多桑爸爸阿叔阿爸俺二仔俺爹
    Taichung 爸爸
    Hsinchu 阿爹爸爸
    Lukang 阿府阿爸
    Sanxia 老歲仔老的阿爸
    Yilan 阿丈阿叔阿爸
    Kinmen 俺爹俺爸
    Magong 阿爸二仔爸爸
    Penang 阿爸爸爸
    Philippines (Manila) 爸爸
    Chaozhou 阿爸阿爹
    Haikou 阿爹阿兄阿官阿爸
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning 數字數老阿叔 dated
    Wu Shanghai 爸爸老爸爹爹 dated阿伯 dated
    Suzhou 爹爹
    Hangzhou 阿伯爸爸
    Wenzhou 阿爸阿伯阿大
    Chongming 爹爹阿爹 uncommon爺爺
    Danyang 爹爹爸爸
    Jinhua 伯伯爹爹爸爸
    Tangxi
    Ningbo 阿伯爸爸
    Xiang Changsha 爹爹爺爺
    Shuangfeng 爹爹
    Loudi 爹爹

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pɨoX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pioX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pioX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /puə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /pioX/
    Wang
    Li
    /pĭuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pi̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pjuX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*p(r)aʔ/
    English (respectful suffix in male names)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 3500
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*paʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary, respectful) old man; elderly man
      /   ―    ―  old fisherman
        ―  tián  ―  old farmer
    2. (literary) Alternative form of (, “honorific suffix used after a man's name; courtesy name”).

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. father

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Antonyms[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちち
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ちち, rōmaji chichi)

    1. father
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4402)
        知波夜布留 賀美乃美佐賀尓 奴佐麻都里 伊波布伊能知波 意毛知々我多米
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 115:
        父爲考、和名知々、日本紀私記云加曾

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From chichi. Eastern dialect.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana しし, rōmaji shishi)

    1. father
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4376)
        多妣由岐尓 由久等之良受弖 阿母志々尓 己等麻乎佐受弖 伊麻叙久夜之気
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4378)
        都久比夜波 須具波由気等毛 阿母志々可 多麻乃須我多波 和須例西奈布母

    Etymology 3[edit]

    From chichi.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana てて, rōmaji tete)

    1. father
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 649)
        Tete. l, chichi. テテ. まはは, チチ (てて. または, 父) 父親.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    From chichi.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana とと, rōmaji toto)

    1. a childish term for one's father; daddy
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 670)
        Toto. トト (とと) 父. これは子どもの使う語である.

    Etymology 5[edit]

    /kaso2/: *[kasə] > [kaso].

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かそ, rōmaji kaso)

    1. father
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 115:
        父爲考、和名知々、日本紀私記云加曾

    Etymology 6[edit]

    From kaso. Medial -s- voices to /kazo/.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かぞ, rōmaji kazo)

    1. father

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (bu, bo)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): , (revised: bu, bo, McCune–Reischauer: pu, po, Yale: pu, po)
      • Name (hangeul): 아비, (revised: abi, ja, McCune–Reischauer: abi, cha, Yale: api, ca)
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (phụ, bố)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.