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U+7236, 父
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7236

[U+7235]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7237]
U+2F57, ⽗
KANGXI RADICAL FATHER

[U+2F56]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F58]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
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Translingual

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Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
4 strokes
Stroke order

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 88, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金大 (CK), four-corner 80400, composition (GHJTV) or 丿(K))

  1. Kangxi radical #88, .

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 690, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19721
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1103, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2039, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7236

Further reading

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Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠇑

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Pictogram (象形) – A hand holding a stone, referring to a man working with a stone axe.

Etymology

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *p/ba (male; father).

Regular development from Middle Chinese would lead to the labiodental in Mandarin, but the colloquial word resisted the sound changes and is now written as (), with the () phonetic component added to it to indicate the unchanged bilabial initial.

Pronunciation 1

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Note: hô - literary.
Note:
  • hu6 - literary;
  • bê6 - semantic (original character is ).

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter bjuX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/bioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/buə̆X/
Li
Rong
/bioX/
Wang
Li
/bĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
fu6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[N-p](r)aʔ/
English father

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 3504
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*baʔ/

Definitions

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  1. father
      ―  qīn  ―  (formal) father
      ―    ―  parents; father and mother
      ―    ―  father and son
      ―    ―  father and daughter
      ―  bèi  ―  one's father's generation
      ―  jiā  ―  (humble) my father
      ―  shēng  ―  biological father
      ―  yǎng  ―  adoptive father
      ―    ―  stepfather
      ―  tiān  ―  (Christianity) Heavenly Father
      ―  guó  ―  father of a nation; (specifically) Father of the Republic (Sun Yat-sen)
    雜交水稻杂交水稻  ―  zájiāo shuǐdào zhī   ―  (specifically) Father of Hybrid Rice (Yuan Longping)
    Antonym: ()
  2. Used to address a male elder member of a family.
      ―    ―  paternal grandfather (one's father's father)
      ―    ―  paternal uncle (father's elder brother)
      ―  shū  ―  paternal uncle (father's younger brother)
      ―  yuè  ―  father-in-law (wife's father)
      ―  jiù  ―  maternal uncle (mother's brother)
      ―    ―  maternal uncle (husband of mother's sister)
      ―    ―  paternal uncle (husband of father's sister)
    Antonym: ()
Synonyms
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Pronunciation 2

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (1)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter pjuX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/pioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/pioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puə̆X/
Li
Rong
/pioX/
Wang
Li
/pĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
fu2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*p(r)aʔ/
English (respectful suffix in male names)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 3500
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*paʔ/

Definitions

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  1. (literary, respectful) old man; elderly man
      ―    ―  old fisherman
      ―  tián  ―  old farmer
  2. (literary) Alternative form of (honorific suffix used after a man's name; courtesy name)
    梁甫山 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Liángshān (Liángfǔshān) [Pinyin]
    Mount Liangfu (alternately, Mount Liangfu) (in Shandong, China)
  3. a surname

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
父󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
ちち
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese (titi), from Proto-Japonic *titi.

Still in modern usage.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ちち) (chichi

  1. father
    野比(のび)のび(すけ)は、(しゅ)(じん)(こう)のび()(ちち)
    Nobi Nobisuke wa, shujinkō Nobita no chichi.
    Nobi Nobisuke is the father of the protagonist Nobita.
    • 938, Minamoto no Shitagō, Wamyō Ruijushō, volume 1, page 115:
      (ちち) ()(こう)()(めい)()()()(ほん)()()()(いう)()()
      chichi sukō, wamei chichi, Nihon Ki Shiki iu kaso
      Father: considered in Japanese as chichi; in the Nihon Shoki Shiki it is pronounced kaso
  2. (by extension, figurative) a father figure (male initiator or founder of something)
    (きん)(だい)()(がく)(ちち)
    kindai igaku no chichi
    the father of modern medicine
  3. (Christianity) God, the Holy Father
Usage notes
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  • This term conveys neither positive nor negative connotations. However, using it to describe someone the speaker knows personally is often considered lacking respect, where more polite forms like (とう)さん (otōsan) are preferred.
  • This term is sometimes used in objective narrations, but for this purpose, (ちち)(おや) (chichioya) is more common.
Antonyms
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
ちち > てて
Grade: 2
irregular

Appears in the Utsubo Monogatari of roughly 970 CE.[3]

Glossed as “I[gualmente], chichi. Pay” (“same as chichi. Father”) in Nippo Jisho.[4]

Shift from chichi.[3][5]

Usage continued until at least the early 1700s.[3]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(てて) (tete

  1. (archaic) one's own father
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
とと
Grade: 2
irregular

Appears in the Nippo Jisho of 1603.[3]

Originally a shift from chichi or tete in baby talk, used by children to refer to their own father.

Still in modern usage.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(とと) (toto

  1. (childish) one's own father: daddy
    Coordinate term: (kaka)
  2. (by later extension) a husband, master of the house
Derived terms
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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
ちゃん
Grade: 2
irregular
Alternative spelling

/totosan//totːɕan//t͡ɕan/

Likely a contraction of 父さん (toto-san).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ちゃん) (chan

  1. (informal, possibly dialect) one's own father [from Edo to early-Meiji period]
  2. (by later extension) the head or master of an establishment such as a teahouse, boathouse, etc.

Etymology 5

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
goon

The “father” and “uncle” affixes is from Middle Chinese (MC bjuX).

The “old man” affix is from Middle Chinese (MC pjuX).

Pronunciation

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Affix

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() (fu

  1. father
  2. father figure
  3. uncle
  4. old man, elderly man
Derived terms
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Etymology 6

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kan’yōon

From a corruption of Middle Chinese (MC pjuX).

Pronunciation

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Affix

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() (ho

  1. (honorific) old man
Derived terms
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Etymology 7

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Kanji in this term
かそ
Grade: 2
irregular

⟨kaso2 → */kasə//kaso//kazo/

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE as unvoiced kaso.[1][3] Further derivation unknown.[3]

May have fallen out of use by 1603, when neither kaso nor kazo are found in the Nippo Jisho. Kaso would be here as the sixth entry from the bottom on the left, and kazo would be here as the eighth from the bottom on the right.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(かぞ) (kazo

  1. (obsolete) one's own father
    • 938, Minamoto no Shitagō, Wamyō Ruijushō, volume 1, page 115:
      (ちち) ()(こう)()(めい)()()()(ほん)()()()(いう)()()
      chichi sukō, wamei chichi, Nihon Ki Shiki iu kaso
      Father: considered in Japanese as chichi; in the Nihon Shoki Shiki it is pronounced kaso
Derived terms
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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  4. ^ “Tete”, in Nippo Jisho, 1604, page 256
  5. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  6. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC bjuX, “father”).

Historical readings

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 아비 (abi bu))

  1. Hanja form? of (father).
  2. Hanja form? of (elderly male relative).
Compounds
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Etymology 2

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From Middle Chinese (MC pjuX, “old man; elderly man”).

Historical readings

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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(eumhun 사내 (sanae bo))

  1. (literary) Hanja form? of (respectful term for an elderly man).
    Synonym: ( (bo))
Compounds
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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Old Japanese

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Etymology 1

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Reduplication of ti below.[1]

Noun

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(titi) (kana ちち)

  1. one's own father
    Coordinate term: (omo, papa)
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 13, poem 3312:
      , text here
      ...奥床仁母者睡有外床丹者寐有...
      ...okuto2ko2 ni papa pa inetari to1do2ko2 ni titi pa inetari...
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • Japanese: (chichi, tete, toto)

Etymology 2

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Eastern dialect of titi above.

Noun

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(sisi) (kana しし)

  1. (regional, Northern Eastern Old Japanese) one's own father
    Antonym: (amo)
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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From Proto-Japonic *ti.

Noun

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(ti) (kana )

  1. (honorific) a term of respect for males
    • 711–712, Kojiki, poem 48:
      加志能布邇余久須袁都久理余久須邇迦美斯意富美岐宇麻良爾岐許志母知袁勢麻呂賀
      kasi no2 pu ni yo2kusu wo tukuri yo2kusu ni kami1si opomi1ki1 umara ni ki1ko2simo2tiwose maro2 ga ti
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      Note: Poem 39 of the Nihon Shoki is similar to this but replaces 迦美斯 (kami1si) with 伽綿蘆 (kame1ru).
Derived terms
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Etymology 4

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Unknown.[2]

Noun

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(kaso2) (kana かそ)

  1. one's own father
    Antonym: (iro2pa)
    • 720, Nihon Shoki, Emperor Ninken, entry 11: sixth year, ninth month in autumn:
      菱城邑人鹿父〈鹿父、人名也。俗、呼父為柯曾〉聞而向前曰「何哭之哀甚、若此乎」。
      A man of Pisikï village, Kakasö (his name is Kakasö; it was customary to call one's father kasö) heard [the woman's] cries, turned to her, and asked, “Why these cries of grief, young one?”
Descendants
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  • Japanese: (kazo)

References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: phụ ((phù)()(thiết))[1][2][3][4]
: Nôm readings: phụ[1][3][5], phủ[1]

Affix

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 (phụ)

  1. Chữ Hán form of phụ (father).
  2. Chữ Hán form of phụ (elderly male relative).

Compounds

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References

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