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See also: and
U+56B4, 嚴
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-56B4

[U+56B3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+56B5]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +17, 20 strokes, cangjie input 口口一一大 (RRMMK), four-corner 66248, composition𠪚)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 214, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4589
  • Dae Jaweon: page 436, character 33
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 702, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+56B4

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
嚴-bronze.svg 嚴-seal.svg 嚴-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋam): semantic  (talkative) + phonetic  (OC *klaːmʔ) – the original script of (OC *qʰlaːms, *qʰraːms, *qʰraːb, “exaggerated and absurd words”).

The meanings of "solemn" and "stern" may be a result of phonetic borrowing.

Etymology[edit]

Schuessler (2007) considers (OC *ŋam) to be cognate with the following:

  • (OC *ŋraːm, “(of mountains) high; lofty”)
  • (OC *ŋamʔ, “dignified; majestic”)
  • (OC *qʰramʔ, “precipitous; dangerous”)
  • (OC *ŋab, “lofty; large”) (an allofam with a stop final).

They are all Sino-Tibetan in origin. Cognates in Tibetan include Tibetan རྔམ་པ་ (rngam pa, splendor; majesty) and Tibetan རྔམས (rngams, height; splendor). Burmese ငြမ်း (ngram:, scaffold) may also be a cognate.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nyian2 - literary;
  • ngan2 - vernacular.
  • Cantonese
  • Min Bei
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • gân - vernacular;
    • giâm - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
    Harbin /ian²⁴/
    Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
    Jinan /iã⁴²/
    Qingdao /iã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
    Xi'an /iã²⁴/
    Xining /iã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
    Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
    Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /ȵian³¹/
    Guiyang /nian²¹/
    /ian²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ien²⁴/
    Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
    Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /ie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
    Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ne⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵiɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /ȵiẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋiam¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋiɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jim²¹/
    Nanning /jim²¹/
    Hong Kong /jim²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /giam³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋieŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋiŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋiam⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋiam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (145)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie 𩏩
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɨɐm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋiɐm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiɐm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɨam/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiɐm/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭɐm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯ɐm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjæm ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋ(r)am/
    English stern, majestic

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3692
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋam/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. strict, rigorous, rigid
      /   ―  yán  ―  strict; stringent
      /   ―  yánjǐn  ―  rigorous; strict
    2. stern
      /   ―  yán  ―  stern
    3. solemn; majestic; stately
      /   ―  zhuāngyán  ―  solemn
      /   ―  zūnyán  ―  dignity
    4. urgent; pressing
    5. severe
      /   ―  yánzhòng  ―  severe; critical
    6. (of defense) tight
      /   ―  yán  ―  tight; difficult to penetrate
    7. (of weather) freezing cold
      /   ―  yándōng  ―  severe winter; harsh winter
      /   ―  yánhán  ―  freezing cold; bitterly cold
    8. to respect
    9. to fear
    10. A surname​.
      /   ―  Yán  ―  Yan Fu (scholar and translator)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ごん) (gon); (げん) (gen)
    • Korean: (, eom)
    • Vietnamese: nghiêm ()

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of (strictness, severity, rigidity)

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eom) (hangeul , revised eom, McCune–Reischauer ŏm)

    1. strict, rigorous, rigid
    2. stern

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nghiêm, ngàm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.