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U+523A, 刺
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-523A

[U+5239]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+523B]
刺 U+F9FF, 刺
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9FF

[U+F9FE]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA00]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 18, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木月中弓 (DBLN), four-corner 52900, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 139, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1969
  • Dae Jaweon: page 316, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 333, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+523A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𣐁

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sʰeɡs, *sʰeɡ): phonetic (OC *sʰeɡs) + semantic (knife).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-tshyar ~ *g-zyar (thorn, nail, tack) (provisional) (STEDT); cognate with Tibetan [script needed] (tsʰer-ma, thorn, thorn bush), [script needed] (gzer-ba, to bore into), and [script needed] (gzer, nail) (Schuessler, 2007).

(OC *tsekh) "attack, satirize" (Zuozhuan) < "criticize" (Shijing) < lit. "cause to be stabbed" is exopassive/exoactive derivation of (OC *tsek) "pierce, stab" (ibid.); (OC tsʰieC) "thorn" (SW) is Han period's general tone-C derivation of (OC *tsʰiek) (ibid.)

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (14)
Final () (11)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰiᴇH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰiɛH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰjɛH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰiə̆H/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰieH/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰǐeH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰie̯H/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ci3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]ek-s/
English sharp point, thorn

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 1746
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰeɡs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. a pointed structure which is able to pierce something (spike, spine, thorn, etc.)
  2. (literary, or in compounds) visiting card
Descendants[edit]
Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (shi)

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (14)
Final () (123)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰiᴇk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰiɛk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰiæk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰiajk̚/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰiɛk̚/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰĭɛk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰi̯ɛk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cik1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshjek ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]ek/
English pierce, stab

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 1780
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰeɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to stab; to prick
  2. (literary, or in compounds) to kill discreetly; to assassinate discreetly
      ―  bèi   ―  to be assassinated
    荊軻荆轲  ―  Jīng Kē qín wáng  ―  Jing Ke's [attempted] assassination of the King of Qin
  3. (literary, or in compounds) to criticize with pointed words
  4. (literary, or in compounds) to pry into; to investigate
  5. (literary, or in compounds) to stimulate
      ―  'ěr  ―  ear-piercing
  6. (literary, or in compounds or Min Nan) to provoke; to irritate (through light, sound, heat, etc.)
  7. a surname: Ci
Synonyms[edit]
  • (to stab): (Min Nan) 𠡡 (cán)
  • (to kill discreetly):
edit
  • (to criticize with pointed words):
edit
  • (to pry into):
edit

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. sound of rubbing

Pronunciation 4[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 刺促 (qìcù).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰiᴇH, “spike, thorn; calling card”):

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰiᴇk̚, “prick, stab; criticize with pointed words”):

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
とげ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

*⟨to2ɡe2 → */təɡəɨ//toɡe/

From Proto-Japonic *tənkay.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(とげ) (toge

  1. a thorn, prickle
  2. a splinter
  3. a biting word

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
さ(し)
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 刺す (sasu, to pierce; to prick, sting).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(さし) (sashi

  1. Short for 米刺 (komesashi): a small tool used to extract a sample of rice from a bag in order to test its quality
  2. (historical) in the Edo period, a paper string used to store ぜに (zeni, round coins with a square hole in the center)
  3. Short for 刺身 (sashimi): sliced pieces of fish or other meat

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
いら
Grade: S
irregular

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(いら) (ira

  1. a thorn, prickle
  2. the spine (needle-like structure) of a fish's dorsal fin
  3. Short for 刺草 (irakusa): nettle
  4. Short for 刺虫 (iramushi): the larva of the 刺蛾 (iraga, Monema flavescens), a species of moth
  5. the horn-like projections of 金平糖 (konpeitō, sugar candy of varying colors and flavors)
  6. Synonym of 水母 (kurage): a jellyfish
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on’yomi

/si//ɕi/

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰiᴇH).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (shi

  1. a thorn, prickle, needle
  2. a calling card, name card
    Synonyms: 名札 (nafuda), 名刺 (meishi)

Affix[edit]

() (shi

  1. stab, prick
  2. criticize with pointed words
  3. spike, thorn
  4. name card
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰiᴇH).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕa̠(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 찌를 (jjireul ja))

  1. Hanja form? of (spike; thorn).
  2. Hanja form? of (to stab; to prick).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰiᴇk̚).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 찌를 (jjireul cheok))

  1. Hanja form? of (to stab; to prick).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 나무랄 (namural che))

  1. (literary Chinese) Hanja form? of (scold).

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: thích, thứ
: Nôm readings: chích

  1. Nôm form of chích (to prick).