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U+523A, 刺
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-523A

[U+5239]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+523B]
刺 U+F9FF, 刺
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9FF

[U+F9FE]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA00]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 18, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木月中弓 (DBLN), four-corner 52900, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 139, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1969
  • Dae Jaweon: page 316, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 333, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+523A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𣐁
𪑟

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *sʰeɡs, *sʰeɡ): phonetic (OC *sʰeɡs) + semantic (knife).

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-tshyar ~ *g-zyar (thorn, nail, tack) (provisional) (STEDT); cognate with Tibetan ཚེར་མ (tsher ma, thorn, thorn bush), གཟེར་བ (gzer ba, to bore into), and གཟེར (gzer, nail) (Schuessler, 2007).

(OC *tsekh) "attack, satirize" (Zuozhuan) < "criticize" (Shijing) < lit. "cause to be stabbed" is exopassive/exoactive derivation of (OC *tsek) "pierce, stab" (ibid.); (OC tsʰieC) "thorn" (SW) is Han period's general tone-C derivation of (OC *tsʰiek) (ibid.)

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • chhì - vernacular (Xiamen, Zhangzhou) (“pointed structure”);
  • chhù - literary (Xiamen, Zhangzhou).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (11)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter tshjeH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰiᴇH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰiɛH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰjɛH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰiə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰieH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰǐeH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰie̯H/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ci3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshjeH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]ek-s/
    English sharp point, thorn

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 1746
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰeɡs/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. a pointed structure which is able to pierce something (spike, spine, thorn, etc.)
    2. (literary, or in compounds) visiting card
    Descendants[edit]
    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (shi)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • chhiah - vernacular (“to stab; to sew; to tattoo; to pick out; to expose; prickly; to remind someone during a fight”);
    • chhì - vernacular (Xiamen, Zhangzhou) (“to stab (Mainland); dazzling”);
    • chhù - literary (Xiamen, Zhangzhou).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (123)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter tshjek
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰiᴇk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰiɛk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰiæk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰiajk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰiɛk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰĭɛk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰi̯ɛk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qi
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    cik1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshjek ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]ek/
    English pierce, stab

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 1780
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰeɡ/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. to stab; to prick
    2. (literary, or in compounds) to kill discreetly; to assassinate discreetly
        ―  bèi   ―  to be assassinated
      荊軻荆轲  ―  Jīng Kē qín wáng  ―  Jing Ke's [attempted] assassination of the King of Qin
    3. (literary, or in compounds) to criticize with pointed words
    4. (literary, or in compounds) to pry into; to investigate
    5. (literary, or in compounds) to stimulate
        ―  'ěr  ―  ear-piercing
    6. (literary, or in compounds or Min Nan) to provoke; to irritate (through light, sound, heat, etc.)
    7. (fencing) to thrust; to attack the opponent at an area parallel to the weapon's length
    8. (fencing) thrust
        ―  jiǎ zhí   ―  feint direct thrust
    9. a surname: Ci
    10. (Hokkien, by extension) to sew; to weave; to knit; to embroider
    11. (Hokkien, by extension) to tattoo
    12. (Mainland China Hokkien) dazzling; glaring
    13. (Mainland China Hokkien) to pick out; to pluck out
    14. (Taiwanese Hokkien) to expose; to bring to light
    15. (Taiwanese Hokkien) prickly and uncomfortable (as if being pricked by needles)
    16. (Zhangzhou Hokkien) to remind someone during a fight of the number of times one has given favors to that person
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (to stab): (tǒng), (Min Nan) 𠡡
    • (to kill discreetly):
    • (to criticize with pointed words):
    • (to pry into):
    • (to expose):

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. sound of rubbing

    Pronunciation 4[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 刺促 (qìcù).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“red; brown; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of ).

    References[edit]

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC tshjeH, “spike, thorn; calling card”):

    From Middle Chinese (MC tshjek, “prick, stab; criticize with pointed words”):

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とげ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (とげ) (toge

    1. a thorn, prickle
    2. a splinter
    3. a biting word

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    さ(し)
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 刺す (sasu, to pierce; to prick, sting).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (さし) (sashi

    1. Short for 米刺 (komesashi): a small tool used to extract a sample of rice from a bag in order to test its quality
    2. (historical) in the Edo period, a paper string used to store ぜに (zeni, round coins with a square hole in the center)
    3. Short for 刺身 (sashimi): sliced pieces of fish or other meat
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いら
    Grade: S
    irregular

    Ultimately from Proto-Japonic *era.

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (いら) (ira

    1. a thorn, prickle
    2. the spine (needle-like structure) of a fish's dorsal fin
    3. Short for 刺草 (irakusa): nettle
    4. Short for 刺虫 (iramushi): the larva of the 刺蛾 (iraga, Monema flavescens), a species of moth
    5. the horn-like projections of 金平糖 (konpeitō, sugar candy of varying colors and flavors)
    6. Synonym of 水母 (kurage): a jellyfish
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    /si//ɕi/

    From Middle Chinese (MC tshjeH).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (shi

    1. a thorn, prickle, needle
    2. a calling card, name card
      Synonyms: 名札 (nafuda), 名刺 (meishi)

    Affix[edit]

    () (shi

    1. stab, prick
    2. criticize with pointed words
    3. spike, thorn
    4. name card
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC tshjeH).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕa̠(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 찌를 (jjireul ja))

    1. Hanja form? of (spike; thorn).
    2. Hanja form? of (to stab; to prick).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC tshjek).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 찌를 (jjireul cheok))

    1. Hanja form? of (to stab; to prick).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 나무랄 (namural che))

    1. (literary Chinese) Hanja form? of (scold).

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: thích, thứ
    : Nôm readings: chích

    1. Nôm form of chích (to prick).