sugar

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See also: sugár

English[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From later Old French çucre (circa 13th century), from Medieval Latin zuccarum, from Old Italian zucchero, from Arabic سُكَّر ‎(sukkar), from Persian شکر ‎(šakar), from Middle Persian škl ‎(šakar) (Manichaean Middle Persian šqr), from Sanskrit शर्करा ‎(śárkarā, ground or candied sugar", originally "grit, gravel), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱorkeh₂ ‎(gravel, boulder), akin to Ancient Greek κρόκη ‎(krókē, pebble).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

sugar ‎(countable and uncountable, plural sugars)

  1. (uncountable) Sucrose in the form of small crystals, obtained from sugar cane or sugar beet and used to sweeten food and drink.
    • 1792, Francis Collingwood, The universal cook: and city and country housekeeper[1]:
      To a pound of gooseberries take a pound and a half of double-refined sugar. Clarify the sugar with water, a pint to a pound of sugar, and when the syrup is cold, put the gooseberries single in your preserving pan, put the syrup to them, and set them on a gentle fire.
    • 1895 April 1, “The Present Crisis”, in The Sugar Cane[2], volume 27, number 309, page 171:
      There appears to be no prospect of success in attempting to combat the crisis by international arrangement, and any improvement in sugar prices can only be looked for from a diminution of the production, either as a consequence of deficient crops, or of a reduction in manufacture.
    • 2013, Robert Paarlberg, Food Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know?[3]:
      Even in extreme cases such as chemical pollution in the Florida Everglades from heavily subsidized sugar farming, strong regulations are routinely blocked by industry.
  2. (countable) A specific variety of sugar.
    • 1915 September 18, “Drying Sugars Essential to Their Preservation”, in The Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer[4], volume 55:
      The experience of sugar planters in Louisiana this year in holding their sugars in warehouse for future sales at better prices has revealed again, as it has done heretofore, the fact that the presence of moisture in the sugars is inimical to their maintaining their standard of quality
  3. (countable, chemistry) Any of various small carbohydrates that are used by organisms to store energy.
    • 1942, James E. Kraus, Effects of partial defoliation at transplanting time on subsequent[5]:
      At the end of the second week there were less reducing sugars in the unpruned plants than in the previous week, but those in the pruned plants were the same.
    • 1994, Peter J. Van Soest, Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant[6]:
      Generally speaking, plants have a much greater variety of sugars and linkages than animal tissues have.
    • 1998, A.J. Harborne, Phytochemical Methods A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis[7]:
      The major free sugars in plants are the monosaccharides, glucose and fructose (and the disaccharide sucros), together with traces of xylose, rhamnose and galactose.
    • 2007, Ajit Varma, Plant Surface Microbiology[8]:
      Although H. bertonii relies on scale insects to prepare its parasitism site on plants, it directly absorbs and utilizes plant sugars.
  4. (countable) When used to sweeten a drink, an amount of this substance approximately equal to five grams or one teaspoon.
    • 1916, Cosmo Hamilton, “Miss Fanny Goes to Great Lengths”, in The World To-day: A Monthly Record of Human Progress[9], volume 30:
      “A slice of lemon and two sugars, please.” “You needn't have said that. I know how you like your tea. I know how you like everything.”
    • 1993, Bill Murray as Phil, Groundhog Day, 1:13:03 from the start:
      Skim milk, two sugar.
    • 2016, Ameera Patel, Outside the Lines[10]:
      Then there are the coffees, one with two sweeteners and no milk, one with one sweetener and milk, one with three sugars and a dash of milk, one with one sugar and lots of milk and finally her Uncle Samad who says that anything is fine.
    He usually has his coffee white with one sugar.
  5. (countable) A term of endearment.
    I'll be with you in a moment, sugar.
  6. (countable, slang) A kiss.
  7. (chiefly southern US, slang, uncountable) Effeminacy in a male, often implying homosexuality.
    • 1998, Lene Østermark-Johansen, Sweetness and Strength, ISBN 1859284523:
      There are depths and heights of beauty in him beyond tears - but there is no sugar, not even any honey.
    • 1999, Peggy J. Rudd, My Husband Wears My Clothes, ISBN 096267625X:
      The crossdresser is showing the desire to be "sugar and spice" through feminine clothing and through the expression of feminine feelings.
    • 2008, Reuben A. Buford May, Living Through the Hoop, ISBN 0814757294:
      Because of Patrick's mannerisms, the players teased him by referring to him as “Sweetness” or saying that he had “sugar” in his pants.
    I think John has a little bit of sugar in him.
  8. (uncountable, informal) Diabetes.
    • 2002, Mrs Sheila Hillier & David Kelleher, Researching Cultural Differences in Health, ISBN 1134832761, page 94:
      One respondent said that he had been told by his doctor that he had 'sugar' and diabetes, thus affirming for him the distinctiveness of the two illnesses. The distinction made sense to some of them as the relationship between diabetes and 'sugar' seemed to relate to their experiences of the West Indies, where 'sugar' was believed to be rare and diabetes common.
    • 2003, Tom Lee, Above All We Ask Or Think, ISBN 1591604249, page 53:
      The veterinarian said his real problem was that he had sugar, and not to concentrate on the problem with his eyes.
    • 2004, Diane M. Parker & Ruth E. Mark, Reflections on a Life with Diabetes: A Memoir in Many Voices, ISBN 1589395964, page 57:
      Don't you love it when you start a new Disease - the pamphlets, the prescriptions, the attention? And the past turning ironic, cloudy, as if you'd added a chemical - my house painter saying he has sugar, reminding me of my mother demanding the sweet drool from every baby.
    • 2008, De'lois Washington McMillan, Suppose Jesus Had Thrown in the Towel and Given Up on Us, ISBN 1438921063:
      The doctor told me I had sugar and would have to take pills.
    • 2012, Bert Fraser-Reid, From Sugar to Splenda, ISBN 3642227813:
      The memorable event was watching my father test urine, his or that of sundry other folks who had “sugar”, as diabetes was known in the rural hills of Jamaica where I grew up.
  9. (by extension, dated) Anything resembling sugar in taste or appearance, especially in chemistry.
    • 1717, M. de Fontenelle, “Upon the Iron of Plants”, in The Lives of the French, Italian and German Philosophers[11]:
      Mons. Lemery is of Opinion that Sweetness proceeds from a close Mixture of an Acid with a Sulphur, or with an Oyl that temperates and corrects it; he supports his Conjecture by the instance of Sugar of Saturn, so called from its Sweetness, which is Lead, a Metal insipid in its self, but very Sulphureous, dissolved by an Acid.
    • 1788, E. Cullen, “Of Magnesia”, in Physical and chemical essays[12], volume 1, translation of original by Torbern Olof Bergman, page 448:
      The fluor acid, the acid of sugar, of phosphorus, and vitriol, separate magnelia from the acid of arsenic; but the acid of tartar, united with arsenicated magnesia, is generally found to compose a triple salt.
    • 1094, “Process of Making Milk Sugar”, in The American Sugar Industry and Beer Sugar Gazette[13], volume 6, page 392:
      Sugar of milk is now produced by partly chemical means from milk-whey, the product being about two and a half pounds per hundred pounds of whey.
    Sugar of lead (lead acetate) is a poisonous white crystalline substance with a sweet taste.
  10. Compliment or flattery used to disguise or render acceptable something obnoxious; honeyed or soothing words.
  11. (US, slang) Heroin.

Derived terms[edit]

Holonyms[edit]

Hyponyms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb[edit]

sugar ‎(third-person singular simple present sugars, present participle sugaring, simple past and past participle sugared)

  1. (transitive) To add sugar to; to sweeten with sugar.
    • 1876, Emilie Foster, Teddy and His Friends[14]:
      See, I've put sugar-plums on his coat for fancy buttons, sugared his shirt-frill, and put on a red almond to his hat-front.
    • 1905, “The Duke of Castle Blanco”, in The Quiver[15], page 1007:
      "There spoke the real British scorn," she said, sugaring her tea, "the fine British contempt for every other nation."
    • 2002, Frank Tallis, Hidden Minds: A History of the Unconscious[16]:
      Moreover, the residents recalled that the aristocrat's pet canary had become like a personal retainer, waking his master in the morning and sugaring his drink.
    John heavily sugars his coffee.
  2. (transitive) To make (something unpleasant) seem less so.
    • 1890, Anson De Puy Van Buren, Michigan in her pioneer politics:
      He also published the "Weekly Recorder," an indefinite title, which was his way of sugaring what soon became in the region where it was published, Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, a very bitter pill.
    • 1917, Mrs. Florence Guertin Tuttle, Give My Love to Maria[17]:
      She shook her head sadly at him. "No, it won't do, Arthur. I'm not in a mood to be sugared."
    • 2001, Graham Fraser, René Lévesque and the Parti Québécois in Power[18]:
      But step by step, aided by Claude Morin's arguments, Lévesque had led the party through the process of sugaring what he saw as the pill of independence.
    She has a gift for sugaring what would otherwise be harsh words.
  3. (US, Canada, regional) In making maple sugar, to complete the process of boiling down the syrup till it is thick enough to crystallize; to approach or reach the state of granulation; with the preposition off.
    • 1851, J. D. H., “On Making Maple Syrup”, in The Ohio Cultivator, volume 7, page 91:
      To sugar off, I prefer using a kettle that will hold about half a. barrel; and boil over a brisk, steady fire, till on dropping some of the syrup into cold water it will break like glass, then dip it into wooden trays to cool, and when it is grained stir it briskly.
    • 1994, “Sugaring Off”, in Nindinawemaagan Giwitaa'ayeyii, volume 6, page 55:
      A long time ago my grandmother and I used to boil maple sap. When she sugared off, I stood there.
    • 2004, Lois Sakany, Canada: A Primary Source Cultural Guide[19]:
      During the spring in Quebec and Ontario, maple syrup is harvested, or "sugared off," a process which is usually celebrated as a social event.
  4. (entomology) To apply sugar to trees or plants in order to catch moths.
    • 1876, W. Sandison, “Note on sugaring”, in The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine[20], volume 12, page 207:
      Some entomologists assert that it is useless to sugar when ivy is in bloom.
    • 1921, Arthur Herbert Savory, Grain and Chaff from an English Manor[21]:
      The latter are best taken by "sugaring" — painting patches of mixed beer and sugar on a series of tree trunks, and making several rounds at twilight with a lantern and a cyanide bottle.
    • 2006, William J. Sutherland, Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook[22]:
      Sugaring attracts some species of moth that do not readily come to light.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Interjection[edit]

sugar

  1. (informal, euphemistic) Used in place of shit!
    • 1920, James A. Cooper, Tobias O' the Light: A Story of Cape Cod[23]:
      "Oh, sugar! I suppose that's so," reflected Tobias, filling his pipe.
    • 2007, Melinda Henneberger, If They Only Listened to Us: What Women Voters Want Politicians to Hear[24]:
      But they do not even hope for such a thing in '08, and fear far worse: Sister Suzanne Thibault, a lifelong Republican so mild she shouts, “Oh, sugar!” when annoyed, posits that if Hillary Clinton were nominated, “She'd get killed, literally assassinated. We have too many right-wing people out there who would do that."
    • 2012, Macy Beckett, Sultry with a Twist[25]:
      “Oh, sugar.” His room was empty.
    Oh, sugar!

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Basque[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From su +‎ gar.

Noun[edit]

sugar

  1. flame

Ido[edit]

Verb[edit]

sugar (present tense sugas, past tense sugis, future tense sugos, imperative sugez, conditional sugus)

  1. (transitive) to suck

Conjugation[edit]


Latin[edit]

Verb[edit]

sūgar

  1. first-person singular future passive indicative of sūgō

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Vulgar Latin *sucāre, from Latin sugere, present active infinitive of sugō.

Verb[edit]

sugar ‎(first-person singular present indicative sugo, past participle sugado)

  1. to suck

Conjugation[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From suge ‎(to suck) +‎ -ar. Compare Dalmatian sugol ‎(lamb).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

sugar

  1. suckling-

Noun[edit]

sugar m ‎(plural sugari, feminine equivalent sugară)

  1. unweaned baby, newborn
  2. suckling, young mammal that hasn't weaned yet

Synonyms[edit]


Venetian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin exsūcāre, present active infinitive of exsūcō ‎(I juice; I dry) (compare Italian asciugare).

Verb[edit]

sugar

  1. (transitive) to wipe, dry

Conjugation[edit]

Related terms[edit]