suka

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Asi[edit]

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. (anatomy) bone

Azerbaijani[edit]

Other scripts
Cyrillic сука
Abjad سوکا

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Russian сука (suka).

Noun[edit]

suka (definite accusative sukanı, plural sukalar)

  1. (vulgar, offensive) bitch (contemptible person, usually but not necessarily female)
  2. (prison slang) snitch, inmate who collaborates with prison administration

Declension[edit]

    Declension of suka
singular plural
nominative suka
sukalar
definite accusative sukanı
sukaları
dative sukaya
sukalara
locative sukada
sukalarda
ablative sukadan
sukalardan
definite genitive sukanın
sukaların
    Possessive forms of suka
nominative
singular plural
mənim (my) sukam sukalarım
sənin (your) sukan sukaların
onun (his/her/its) sukası sukaları
bizim (our) sukamız sukalarımız
sizin (your) sukanız sukalarınız
onların (their) sukası or sukaları sukaları
accusative
singular plural
mənim (my) sukamı sukalarımı
sənin (your) sukanı sukalarını
onun (his/her/its) sukasını sukalarını
bizim (our) sukamızı sukalarımızı
sizin (your) sukanızı sukalarınızı
onların (their) sukasını or sukalarını sukalarını
dative
singular plural
mənim (my) sukama sukalarıma
sənin (your) sukana sukalarına
onun (his/her/its) sukasına sukalarına
bizim (our) sukamıza sukalarımıza
sizin (your) sukanıza sukalarınıza
onların (their) sukasına or sukalarına sukalarına
locative
singular plural
mənim (my) sukamda sukalarımda
sənin (your) sukanda sukalarında
onun (his/her/its) sukasında sukalarında
bizim (our) sukamızda sukalarımızda
sizin (your) sukanızda sukalarınızda
onların (their) sukasında or sukalarında sukalarında
ablative
singular plural
mənim (my) sukamdan sukalarımdan
sənin (your) sukandan sukalarından
onun (his/her/its) sukasından sukalarından
bizim (our) sukamızdan sukalarımızdan
sizin (your) sukanızdan sukalarınızdan
onların (their) sukasından or sukalarından sukalarından
genitive
singular plural
mənim (my) sukamın sukalarımın
sənin (your) sukanın sukalarının
onun (his/her/its) sukasının sukalarının
bizim (our) sukamızın sukalarımızın
sizin (your) sukanızın sukalarınızın
onların (their) sukasının or sukalarının sukalarının

Further reading[edit]

  • suka” in Obastan.com.

Bikol Central[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Philippine *suka₂ (to vomit). Cognate with Tagalog suka, Cebuano suka, and Tausug suka.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: su‧ka
  • IPA(key): /ˈsuka/, [ˈsu.ka]

Noun[edit]

súka

  1. vomit; puke
    Synonyms: digwa, sukalkag
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowing ultimately from Sanskrit चुक्रा (cukrā, tamarind tree), possibly through Malay cuka (soured wine, vinegar). Cognate with Ilocano suka and Maranao soka'.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: su‧ka
  • IPA(key): /ˈsukaʔ/, [ˈsu.kaʔ]

Noun[edit]

sukà

  1. vinegar
Derived terms[edit]

Cebuano[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Philippine *suka.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. vomit

Verb[edit]

suka

  1. to vomit; to puke
  2. (figuratively) to squeal; to reveal a secret

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowing ultimately from Sanskrit चुक्रा (cukrā, tamarind tree), possibly through Malay cuka (soured wine, vinegar).[1]First attested in Antonio Pigafetta's Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo—detailing the first circumnavigation of the world between 1519 and 1522.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. vinegar; a sour liquid formed by the fermentation of alcohol used as a condiment or preservative; a dilute solution of acetic acid

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jose G. Kuizon (1964) The Sanskrit Loan-Words in the Cebuano-Bisayan Language[1], Cebu City: University of San Carlos, page 120

Estonian[edit]

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. genitive singular of sukk

Fijian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English sugar.

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. sugar

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *suka, from Proto-Finno-Permic *śuka, borrowed from Proto-Indo-Iranian [Term?] (compare Sanskrit शूक (śūka, awn (of grain))). Alternative theory suggests more recent borrowing from Baltic (compare Latvian suka). Cognate with Kildin Sami чоагкь (čågk’), Erzya сюва (śuva).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈsukɑ/, [ˈs̠ukɑ̝]
  • Rhymes: -ukɑ
  • Syllabification(key): su‧ka

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. A brush, especially one used for brushing animals.
  2. currycomb

Declension[edit]

Inflection of suka (Kotus type 10*D/koira, k- gradation)
nominative suka suat
genitive suan sukien
partitive sukaa sukia
illative sukaan sukiin
singular plural
nominative suka suat
accusative nom. suka suat
gen. suan
genitive suan sukien
sukainrare
partitive sukaa sukia
inessive suassa suissa
elative suasta suista
illative sukaan sukiin
adessive sualla suilla
ablative sualta suilta
allative sualle suille
essive sukana sukina
translative suaksi suiksi
abessive suatta suitta
instructive suin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of suka (Kotus type 10*D/koira, k- gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative sukani sukani
accusative nom. sukani sukani
gen. sukani
genitive sukani sukieni
sukainirare
partitive sukaani sukiani
inessive suassani suissani
elative suastani suistani
illative sukaani sukiini
adessive suallani suillani
ablative sualtani suiltani
allative sualleni suilleni
essive sukanani sukinani
translative suakseni suikseni
abessive suattani suittani
instructive
comitative sukineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative sukasi sukasi
accusative nom. sukasi sukasi
gen. sukasi
genitive sukasi sukiesi
sukaisirare
partitive sukaasi sukiasi
inessive suassasi suissasi
elative suastasi suistasi
illative sukaasi sukiisi
adessive suallasi suillasi
ablative sualtasi suiltasi
allative suallesi suillesi
essive sukanasi sukinasi
translative suaksesi suiksesi
abessive suattasi suittasi
instructive
comitative sukinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative sukamme sukamme
accusative nom. sukamme sukamme
gen. sukamme
genitive sukamme sukiemme
sukaimmerare
partitive sukaamme sukiamme
inessive suassamme suissamme
elative suastamme suistamme
illative sukaamme sukiimme
adessive suallamme suillamme
ablative sualtamme suiltamme
allative suallemme suillemme
essive sukanamme sukinamme
translative suaksemme suiksemme
abessive suattamme suittamme
instructive
comitative sukinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative sukanne sukanne
accusative nom. sukanne sukanne
gen. sukanne
genitive sukanne sukienne
sukainnerare
partitive sukaanne sukianne
inessive suassanne suissanne
elative suastanne suistanne
illative sukaanne sukiinne
adessive suallanne suillanne
ablative sualtanne suiltanne
allative suallenne suillenne
essive sukananne sukinanne
translative suaksenne suiksenne
abessive suattanne suittanne
instructive
comitative sukinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative sukansa sukansa
accusative nom. sukansa sukansa
gen. sukansa
genitive sukansa sukiensa
sukainsarare
partitive sukaansa sukiaan
sukiansa
inessive suassaan
suassansa
suissaan
suissansa
elative suastaan
suastansa
suistaan
suistansa
illative sukaansa sukiinsa
adessive suallaan
suallansa
suillaan
suillansa
ablative sualtaan
sualtansa
suiltaan
suiltansa
allative sualleen
suallensa
suilleen
suillensa
essive sukanaan
sukanansa
sukinaan
sukinansa
translative suakseen
suaksensa
suikseen
suiksensa
abessive suattaan
suattansa
suittaan
suittansa
instructive
comitative sukineen
sukinensa

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Fula[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.).

Noun[edit]

suka (plural sukaaɓe ɓe)

  1. young man, young person

Usage notes[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

Ilocano[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ultimately borrowed from Sanskrit चुक्रा (cukrā, tamarind tree), possibly through Malay cuka (soured wine, vinegar). Cognate with Bikol Central suka, Cebuano suka, Tagalog suka, Maranao soka', Pangasinan tuka, and Tausug sukaꞌ.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: su‧ka
  • IPA(key): /suˈka/, [suˈka]

Noun[edit]

suká

  1. vinegar

Derived terms[edit]

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Malay suka, from Sanskrit सुख (sukha, joy).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈsuka/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: su‧ka
  • Rhymes: -ka, -a

Noun[edit]

suka (first-person possessive sukaku, second-person possessive sukamu, third-person possessive sukanya)

  1. pleasure

Verb[edit]

suka (base-imperative locative suka, active locative menyukai, ordinary passive locative disukai)

  1. like
    Dia suka memasak.
    She likes to cook.
  2. love

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Ingrian[edit]

Suka.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *suka. Cognates include Finnish suka and Estonian suga.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. comb

Declension[edit]

Declension of suka (type 3/koira, k- gradation, gemination)
singular plural
nominative suka suat
genitive suan sukkiin
partitive sukkaa sukkia
illative sukkaa sukkii
inessive suas suis
elative suast suist
allative sualle suille
adessive sual suil
ablative sualt suilt
translative suaks suiks
essive sukanna, sukkaan sukinna, sukkiin
exessive1) sukant sukint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 547

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

suka

  1. Rōmaji transcription of すか
  2. Rōmaji transcription of スカ

Latvian[edit]

Matu suka
Zobu suka

Etymology 1[edit]

There are competing theories on the origin of this word. The first (and more probable) one assumes that it comes from Proto-Indo-European *suH- (pig) > derived form *suk- “pig” (masc., fem.), “coarse hair, bristle” (neut.). Originally suka was the neuter plural form, but it became feminine singular after the general loss of the neuter gender, with semantic change “bristles” > “brush” (compare German Bürste (brush), Borste (bristle)). Borrowings by Finnic languages from Baltic languages support this evolution (e.g., Finnish suka (pig bristle (archaic), currycomb)). The second theory considers suka cognate to Lithuanian šùkos (brush), Russian щётка (ščótka, brush), Sanskrit शूक (śūka, needle), all from Proto-Indo-European *ḱū- (pointed). A third theory attributes these words to Proto-Indo-European *kes-, *ks- (to cut, to carve).[1]

Noun[edit]

suka f (4th declension)

  1. brush (instrument made with flexible bristles attached to a handle, used especially for grooming hair)
    drēbju, apavu sukaclothes, shoe brush
    matu sukahairbrush
    zobu sukatoothbrush
    zirgu sukahorse brush, currycomb
    saru, tērauda sukabristle, steel brush
    tīrīt drēbes ar sukuto clean (one's) clothes with a brush
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Russian сука (suka).

Noun[edit]

suka f (4th declension)

  1. (vulgar) bitch

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “suka”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN

Malay[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit सुख (sukha, joy).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

suka (Jawi spellingسوک⁩)

  1. to like, to love

Noun[edit]

suka (Jawi spellingسوک⁩, plural suka-suka, informal 1st possessive sukaku, 2nd possessive sukamu, 3rd possessive sukanya)

  1. happiness, joy

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Indonesian: suka
  • Hokkien: 舒合 (su-kah)
  • Teochew: 舒合 (su1 gah4)

References[edit]

  • Kosakata Bahasa Sanskerta dalam Bahasa Melayu Masa Kini, Jakarta, Indonesia: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa. Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia, 1994, →ISBN, page 336
  • Pijnappel, Jan (1875), “سوک soeka”, in Maleisch-Hollandsch woordenboek, John Enschede en Zonen, Frederik Muller, page 38
  • Wilkinson, Richard James (1901), “سوک suka”, in A Malay-English dictionary, Hong Kong: Kelly & Walsh limited, page 421
  • Wilkinson, Richard James (1932), “suka”, in A Malay-English dictionary (romanised), volume II, Mytilene, Greece: Salavopoulos & Kinderlis, page 495
  • "suka" in Kamus Dewan, Fourth Edition, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, →ISBN, 2005.

Further reading[edit]

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare Sanskrit शुक (śuka).

Noun[edit]

suka m

  1. parrot

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

Pali Text Society (1921–1925), “suka”, in Pali-English Dictionary‎, London: Chipstead Childers, Robert Caesar, Dictionary of the Päli language, London: Trübner & Company, 1875, page 488.

Phuthi[edit]

Verb[edit]

-suka

  1. to go away, to leave

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *sùka, further etymology unclear.

Sense #3 from an association with pies (dog, slang: cop).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

suka f (diminutive suczka, related adjective suczy)

  1. bitch (female dog)
  2. (derogatory) bitch
  3. (slang) police van

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

nouns

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • suka in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • suka in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Quechua[edit]

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. furrow
  2. whistle, whistling noise

Usage notes[edit]

Not to be confused with suk'a, sukha.

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *sùka, further etymology unclear.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

suka f (genitive singular suky, nominative plural suky, genitive plural súk, declension pattern of žena)

  1. bitch
    Synonyms: fena f, fenka f

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • suka”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Swahili[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

-suka (infinitive kusuka)

  1. to shake
  2. to braid, weave

Conjugation[edit]

Conjugation of -suka
Positive present -nasuka
Subjunctive -suke
Negative -suki
Imperative singular suka
Infinitives
Positive kusuka
Negative kutosuka
Imperatives
Singular suka
Plural sukeni
Tensed forms
Habitual husuka
Positive past positive subject concord + -lisuka
Negative past negative subject concord + -kusuka
Positive present (positive subject concord + -nasuka)
Singular Plural
1st person ninasuka/nasuka tunasuka
2nd person unasuka mnasuka
3rd person m-wa(I/II) anasuka wanasuka
other classes positive subject concord + -nasuka
Negative present (negative subject concord + -suki)
Singular Plural
1st person sisuki hatusuki
2nd person husuki hamsuki
3rd person m-wa(I/II) hasuki hawasuki
other classes negative subject concord + -suki
Positive future positive subject concord + -tasuka
Negative future negative subject concord + -tasuka
Positive subjunctive (positive subject concord + -suke)
Singular Plural
1st person nisuke tusuke
2nd person usuke msuke
3rd person m-wa(I/II) asuke wasuke
other classes positive subject concord + -suke
Negative subjunctive positive subject concord + -sisuke
Positive present conditional positive subject concord + -ngesuka
Negative present conditional positive subject concord + -singesuka
Positive past conditional positive subject concord + -ngalisuka
Negative past conditional positive subject concord + -singalisuka
Gnomic (positive subject concord + -asuka)
Singular Plural
1st person nasuka twasuka
2nd person wasuka mwasuka
3rd person m-wa(I/II) asuka wasuka
m-mi(III/IV) wasuka yasuka
ji-ma(V/VI) lasuka yasuka
ki-vi(VII/VIII) chasuka vyasuka
n(IX/X) yasuka zasuka
u(XI) wasuka see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) kwasuka
pa(XVI) pasuka
mu(XVIII) mwasuka
Perfect positive subject concord + -mesuka
"Already" positive subject concord + -meshasuka
"Not yet" negative subject concord + -jasuka
"If/When" positive subject concord + -kisuka
"If not" positive subject concord + -siposuka
Consecutive kasuka / positive subject concord + -kasuka
Consecutive subjunctive positive subject concord + -kasuke
Object concord (indicative positive)
Singular Plural
1st person -nisuka -tusuka
2nd person -kusuka -wasuka/-kusukeni/-wasukeni
3rd person m-wa(I/II) -msuka -wasuka
m-mi(III/IV) -usuka -isuka
ji-ma(V/VI) -lisuka -yasuka
ki-vi(VII/VIII) -kisuka -visuka
n(IX/X) -isuka -zisuka
u(XI) -usuka see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) -kusuka
pa(XVI) -pasuka
mu(XVIII) -musuka
Reflexive -jisuka
Relative forms
General positive (positive subject concord + (object concord) + -suka- + relative marker)
Singular Plural
m-wa(I/II) -sukaye -sukao
m-mi(III/IV) -sukao -sukayo
ji-ma(V/VI) -sukalo -sukayo
ki-vi(VII/VIII) -sukacho -sukavyo
n(IX/X) -sukayo -sukazo
u(XI) -sukao see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) -sukako
pa(XVI) -sukapo
mu(XVIII) -sukamo
Other forms (subject concord + tense marker + relative marker + (object concord) + -suka)
Singular Plural
m-wa(I/II) -yesuka -osuka
m-mi(III/IV) -osuka -yosuka
ji-ma(V/VI) -losuka -yosuka
ki-vi(VII/VIII) -chosuka -vyosuka
n(IX/X) -yosuka -zosuka
u(XI) -osuka see n(X) or ma(VI) class
ku(XV/XVII) -kosuka
pa(XVI) -posuka
mu(XVIII) -mosuka
Some forms not commonly seen in modern Standard Swahili are absent from the table. See Appendix:Swahili verbs for more information.

Derived terms[edit]

Swazi[edit]

Verb[edit]

-suka

  1. to move away

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Tagalog[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Philippine *suka (to vomit). Compare Bikol Central suka, Cebuano suka, Hiligaynon suka, Kapampangan suka, Tausug suka, and Waray-Waray suka.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: su‧ka
  • IPA(key): /ˈsuka/, [ˈsu.xɐ]

Noun[edit]

suka (Baybayin spelling ᜐᜓᜃ)

  1. vomit
    Synonyms: duwal, lungad, (obsolete) alibukay
  2. vomiting; emesis
    Synonyms: duwal, (obsolete) alibukay
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Ultimately borrowed from Sanskrit चुक्र (cukra, tamarind tree; vinegar made by acetous fermentation), possibly through Malay cuka (soured wine, vinegar). Cognate with Bikol Central suka, Cebuano suka, Ilocano suka, Maranao soka', Pangasinan tuka, and Tausug suka'.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: su‧ka
  • IPA(key): /ˈsukaʔ/, [ˈsu.xɐʔ]

Noun[edit]

sukà (Baybayin spelling ᜐᜓᜃ)

  1. vinegar
  2. (by extension) sour fruit used for seasoning food (such as tamarind, tomatoes, green mangoes, etc.)
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Ternate[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

suka

  1. (transitive) to split
  2. (transitive) to crack
  3. (transitive) to break
Conjugation[edit]
Conjugation of suka
Singular Plural
Inclusive Exclusive
1st tosuka fosuka misuka
2nd nosuka nisuka
3rd Masculine osuka isuka, yosuka
Feminine mosuka
Neuter isuka
- archaic

Etymology 2[edit]

From Malay suka, from Sanskrit सुख (sukha). The noun may derive from N- (nominalizer) +‎ suka, which produces no change on the initial consonant s.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

suka

  1. (transitive) to like

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. a like, something that is liked

References[edit]

  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

Tsonga[edit]

Verb[edit]

suka

  1. to leave

Votic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *suka.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Luutsa, Liivtšülä) IPA(key): /ˈsukɑ/, [ˈsukɑ]
  • Rhymes: -ukɑ
  • Hyphenation: su‧ka

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. comb
  2. crest (of a horse)

Inflection[edit]

Declension of suka (type V/poikõ, k-g gradation)
singular plural
nominative suka sugad
genitive suga sukijõ, sukii
partitive sukka sukiitõ, sukii
illative sukkasõ, sukka sukiisõ
inessive sugaz sukiiz
elative sugassõ sukiissõ
allative sugalõ sukiilõ
adessive sugallõ sukiillõ
ablative sugaltõ sukiiltõ
translative sugassi sukiissi
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the terminative is formed by adding the suffix -ssaa to the short illative (sg) or the genitive.
***) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka to the genitive.

References[edit]

  • Hallap, V.; Adler, E.; Grünberg, S.; Leppik, M. (2012), “suka”, in Vadja keele sõnaraamat [A dictionary of the Votic language], 2nd edition, Tallinn

Wallisian[edit]

Suka

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English sugar.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /su.ka/
  • Hyphenation: su‧ka

Noun[edit]

suka

  1. sugar

Waray-Waray[edit]

Noun[edit]

sukà

  1. vinegar

West Makian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Malay suka, possibly through Ternate, from Sanskrit सुख (sukha).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

suka

  1. (transitive) to like
  2. (modal, auxiliary) to very much want to (do something)
  3. (modal, auxiliary) to like to (do something)
    coba ni suka nidadi puniif you would like to become a spirit

Usage notes[edit]

As a modal verb, it does not appear to be conjugated.

Conjugation[edit]

Conjugation of suka (action verb)
singular plural
inclusive exclusive
1st person tosuka mosuka asuka
2nd person nosuka fosuka
3rd person inanimate isuka dosuka
animate
imperative nusuka, suka fusuka, suka

References[edit]

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[3], Pacific linguistics

Xhosa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Verb[edit]

-súka

  1. (intransitive) to be lost

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possibly from Proto-Bantu *-tíga (to leave behind) with the separative suffix *-ʊka, however the tonal change is unexplained. (Note that although this verb is a low toned verb, it is sometimes treated as high toned in the imperative form.) This would make the term related to -sala and -shiya.

Verb[edit]

-suka

  1. (intransitive) to go away, to remove oneself
  2. (intransitive) to leave, to depart, to set off
  3. (intransitive) to originate

Inflection[edit]

Tone L
Infinitive ukusuka
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukusuka ukungasuki
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular suka -suke
Plural sukani -sukeni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyasuka, ngisuka engisukayo, engisuka ngisuka angisuki engingasuki ngingasuki
2nd singular uyasuka, usuka osukayo, osuka usuka awusuki ongasuki ungasuki
1st plural siyasuka, sisuka esisukayo, esisuka sisuka asisuki esingasuki singasuki
2nd plural niyasuka, nisuka enisukayo, enisuka nisuka anisuki eningasuki ningasuki
Class 1 uyasuka, usuka osukayo, osuka esuka akasuki ongasuki engasuki
Class 2 bayasuka, basuka abasukayo, abasuka besuka abasuki abangasuki bengasuki
Class 3 uyasuka, usuka osukayo, osuka usuka awusuki ongasuki ungasuki
Class 4 iyasuka, isuka esukayo, esuka isuka ayisuki engasuki ingasuki
Class 5 liyasuka, lisuka elisukayo, elisuka lisuka alisuki elingasuki lingasuki
Class 6 ayasuka, asuka asukayo, asuka esuka awasuki angasuki engasuki
Class 7 siyasuka, sisuka esisukayo, esisuka sisuka asisuki esingasuki singasuki
Class 8 ziyasuka, zisuka ezisukayo, ezisuka zisuka azisuki ezingasuki zingasuki
Class 9 iyasuka, isuka esukayo, esuka isuka ayisuki engasuki ingasuki
Class 10 ziyasuka, zisuka ezisukayo, ezisuka zisuka azisuki ezingasuki zingasuki
Class 11 luyasuka, lusuka olusukayo, olusuka lusuka alusuki olungasuki lungasuki
Class 14 buyasuka, busuka obusukayo, obusuka busuka abusuki obungasuki bungasuki
Class 15 kuyasuka, kusuka okusukayo, okusuka kusuka akusuki okungasuki kungasuki
Class 17 kuyasuka, kusuka okusukayo, okusuka kusuka akusuki okungasuki kungasuki
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngisukile, ngisukē engisukile, engisukē ngisukile, ngisukē angisukanga engingasukanga ngingasukanga
2nd singular usukile, usukē osukile, osukē usukile, usukē awusukanga ongasukanga ungasukanga
1st plural sisukile, sisukē esisukile, esisukē sisukile, sisukē asisukanga esingasukanga singasukanga
2nd plural nisukile, nisukē enisukile, enisukē nisukile, nisukē anisukanga eningasukanga ningasukanga
Class 1 usukile, usukē osukile, osukē esukile, esukē akasukanga ongasukanga engasukanga
Class 2 basukile, basukē abasukile, abasukē besukile, besukē abasukanga abangasukanga bengasukanga
Class 3 usukile, usukē osukile, osukē usukile, usukē awusukanga ongasukanga ungasukanga
Class 4 isukile, isukē esukile, esukē isukile, isukē ayisukanga engasukanga ingasukanga
Class 5 lisukile, lisukē elisukile, elisukē lisukile, lisukē alisukanga elingasukanga lingasukanga
Class 6 asukile, asukē asukile, asukē esukile, esukē awasukanga angasukanga engasukanga
Class 7 sisukile, sisukē esisukile, esisukē sisukile, sisukē asisukanga esingasukanga singasukanga
Class 8 zisukile, zisukē ezisukile, ezisukē zisukile, zisukē azisukanga ezingasukanga zingasukanga
Class 9 isukile, isukē esukile, esukē isukile, isukē ayisukanga engasukanga ingasukanga
Class 10 zisukile, zisukē ezisukile, ezisukē zisukile, zisukē azisukanga ezingasukanga zingasukanga
Class 11 lusukile, lusukē olusukile, olusukē lusukile, lusukē alusukanga olungasukanga lungasukanga
Class 14 busukile, busukē obusukile, obusukē busukile, busukē abusukanga obungasukanga bungasukanga
Class 15 kusukile, kusukē okusukile, okusukē kusukile, kusukē akusukanga okungasukanga kungasukanga
Class 17 kusukile, kusukē okusukile, okusukē kusukile, kusukē akusukanga okungasukanga kungasukanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāsuka engāsuka ngāsuka angisukanga engingasukanga ngingasukanga
2nd singular wāsuka owāsuka wāsuka awusukanga ongasukanga ungasukanga
1st plural sāsuka esāsuka sāsuka asisukanga esingasukanga singasukanga
2nd plural nāsuka enāsuka nāsuka anisukanga eningasukanga ningasukanga
Class 1 wāsuka owāsuka āsuka akasukanga ongasukanga engasukanga
Class 2 bāsuka abāsuka bāsuka abasukanga abangasukanga bengasukanga
Class 3 wāsuka owāsuka wāsuka awusukanga ongasukanga ungasukanga
Class 4 yāsuka eyāsuka yāsuka ayisukanga engasukanga ingasukanga
Class 5 lāsuka elāsuka lāsuka alisukanga elingasukanga lingasukanga
Class 6 āsuka āsuka āsuka awasukanga angasukanga engasukanga
Class 7 sāsuka esāsuka sāsuka asisukanga esingasukanga singasukanga
Class 8 zāsuka ezāsuka zāsuka azisukanga ezingasukanga zingasukanga
Class 9 yāsuka eyāsuka yāsuka ayisukanga engasukanga ingasukanga
Class 10 zāsuka ezāsuka zāsuka azisukanga ezingasukanga zingasukanga
Class 11 lwāsuka olwāsuka lwāsuka alusukanga olungasukanga lungasukanga
Class 14 bāsuka obāsuka bāsuka abusukanga obungasukanga bungasukanga
Class 15 kwāsuka okwāsuka kwāsuka akusukanga okungasukanga kungasukanga
Class 17 kwāsuka okwāsuka kwāsuka akusukanga okungasukanga kungasukanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingasuka ngingasuka ngingesuke ngingesuke
2nd singular ungasuka ungasuka ungesuke ungesuke
1st plural singasuka singasuka singesuke singesuke
2nd plural ningasuka ningasuka ningesuke ningesuke
Class 1 angasuka engasuka angesuke engesuke
Class 2 bangasuka bengasuka bangesuke bengesuke
Class 3 ungasuka ungasuka ungesuke ungesuke
Class 4 ingasuka ingasuka ingesuke ingesuke
Class 5 lingasuka lingasuka lingesuke lingesuke
Class 6 angasuka engasuka angesuke engesuke
Class 7 singasuka singasuka singesuke singesuke
Class 8 zingasuka zingasuka zingesuke zingesuke
Class 9 ingasuka ingasuka ingesuke ingesuke
Class 10 zingasuka zingasuka zingesuke zingesuke
Class 11 lungasuka lungasuka lungesuke lungesuke
Class 14 bungasuka bungasuka bungesuke bungesuke
Class 15 kungasuka kungasuka kungesuke kungesuke
Class 17 kungasuka kungasuka kungesuke kungesuke
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizosuka engizosuka ngizosuka angizusuka engingezusuka ngingezusuka
2nd singular uzosuka ozosuka uzosuka awuzusuka ongezusuka ungezusuka
1st plural sizosuka esizosuka sizosuka asizusuka esingezusuka singezusuka
2nd plural nizosuka enizosuka nizosuka anizusuka eningezusuka ningezusuka
Class 1 uzosuka ozosuka ezosuka akazusuka ongezusuka engezusuka
Class 2 bazosuka abazosuka bezosuka abazusuka abangezusuka bengezusuka
Class 3 uzosuka ozosuka uzosuka awuzusuka ongezusuka ungezusuka
Class 4 izosuka ezosuka izosuka ayizusuka engezusuka ingezusuka
Class 5 lizosuka elizosuka lizosuka alizusuka elingezusuka lingezusuka
Class 6 azosuka azosuka ezosuka awazusuka angezusuka engezusuka
Class 7 sizosuka esizosuka sizosuka asizusuka esingezusuka singezusuka
Class 8 zizosuka ezizosuka zizosuka azizusuka ezingezusuka zingezusuka
Class 9 izosuka ezosuka izosuka ayizusuka engezusuka ingezusuka
Class 10 zizosuka ezizosuka zizosuka azizusuka ezingezusuka zingezusuka
Class 11 luzosuka oluzosuka luzosuka aluzusuka olungezusuka lungezusuka
Class 14 buzosuka obuzosuka buzosuka abuzusuka obungezusuka bungezusuka
Class 15 kuzosuka okuzosuka kuzosuka akuzusuka okungezusuka kungezusuka
Class 17 kuzosuka okuzosuka kuzosuka akuzusuka okungezusuka kungezusuka
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyosuka engiyosuka ngiyosuka angiyusuka engingeyusuka ngingeyusuka
2nd singular uyosuka oyosuka uyosuka awuyusuka ongeyusuka ungeyusuka
1st plural siyosuka esiyosuka siyosuka asiyusuka esingeyusuka singeyusuka
2nd plural niyosuka eniyosuka niyosuka aniyusuka eningeyusuka ningeyusuka
Class 1 uyosuka oyosuka eyosuka akayusuka ongeyusuka engeyusuka
Class 2 bayosuka abayosuka beyosuka abayusuka abangeyusuka bengeyusuka
Class 3 uyosuka oyosuka uyosuka awuyusuka ongeyusuka ungeyusuka
Class 4 iyosuka eyosuka iyosuka ayiyusuka engeyusuka ingeyusuka
Class 5 liyosuka eliyosuka liyosuka aliyusuka elingeyusuka lingeyusuka
Class 6 ayosuka ayosuka eyosuka awayusuka angeyusuka engeyusuka
Class 7 siyosuka esiyosuka siyosuka asiyusuka esingeyusuka singeyusuka
Class 8 ziyosuka eziyosuka ziyosuka aziyusuka ezingeyusuka zingeyusuka
Class 9 iyosuka eyosuka iyosuka ayiyusuka engeyusuka ingeyusuka
Class 10 ziyosuka eziyosuka ziyosuka aziyusuka ezingeyusuka zingeyusuka
Class 11 luyosuka oluyosuka luyosuka aluyusuka olungeyusuka lungeyusuka
Class 14 buyosuka obuyosuka buyosuka abuyusuka obungeyusuka bungeyusuka
Class 15 kuyosuka okuyosuka kuyosuka akuyusuka okungeyusuka kungeyusuka
Class 17 kuyosuka okuyosuka kuyosuka akuyusuka okungeyusuka kungeyusuka
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngisuke ngingasuki
2nd singular usuke ungasuki
1st plural sisuke singasuki
2nd plural nisuke ningasuki
Class 1 asuke angasuki
Class 2 basuke bangasuki
Class 3 usuke ungasuki
Class 4 isuke ingasuki
Class 5 lisuke lingasuki
Class 6 asuke angasuki
Class 7 sisuke singasuki
Class 8 zisuke zingasuki
Class 9 isuke ingasuki
Class 10 zisuke zingasuki
Class 11 lusuke lungasuki
Class 14 busuke bungasuki
Class 15 kusuke kungasuki
Class 17 kusuke kungasuki
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngasuka ngangasuka, angasuka, angangasuka
2nd singular wasuka wangasuka, awasuka, awangasuka
1st plural sasuka sangasuka, asasuka, asangasuka
2nd plural nasuka nangasuka, anasuka, anangasuka
Class 1 wasuka wangasuka, akasuka, akangasuka
Class 2 basuka bangasuka, abasuka, abangasuka
Class 3 wasuka wangasuka, awasuka, awangasuka
Class 4 yasuka yangasuka, ayasuka, ayangasuka
Class 5 lasuka langasuka, alasuka, alangasuka
Class 6 asuka angasuka, awasuka, awangasuka
Class 7 sasuka sangasuka, asasuka, asangasuka
Class 8 zasuka zangasuka, azasuka, azangasuka
Class 9 yasuka yangasuka, ayasuka, ayangasuka
Class 10 zasuka zangasuka, azasuka, azangasuka
Class 11 lwasuka lwangasuka, alwasuka, alwangasuka
Class 14 basuka bangasuka, abasuka, abangasuka
Class 15 kwasuka kwangasuka, akwasuka, akwangasuka
Class 17 kwasuka kwangasuka, akwasuka, akwangasuka

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]