a-

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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-, not, without).

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. Used to form words indicating a variant spelling of anti-

Derived terms[edit]


English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English a- (up, out, away), from Old English ā-, originally *ar-, *or-, from Proto-Germanic *uz- (out-), from Proto-Indo-European *uds- (up, out). Cognate with Old Saxon ā-, German er-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Forming verbs with the sense away, up, on, out.
    arise, await
  2. (no longer productive) Forming verbs with the sense of intensified action.
    abide, amaze

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. (rare or no longer productive) In, on, at; used to show a state, condition, or manner. Also passing into sense 2. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    apace, afire, aboil, a-bling
  2. (no longer productive) In, into. Also passing into sense 5. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    asunder
  3. In the direction of, or toward. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    astern, abeam
  4. (archaic, dialectal) At such a time. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    Come a-morning we are going hunting.
  5. (archaic, dialectal) In the act or process of. Being conflated with the next definition, a- is used in some dialects to indicate any participle. [First attested prior to 1150][1]
    • 1777, Thomas Arne, A-Hunting We Will Go
    • 1780, The Twelve Days of Christmas:
      The twelfth day of Christmas,
      My true love sent to me
      Twelve lords a-leaping,
      Eight maids a-milking,
      Seven swans a-swimming,
      Six geese a-laying,
    • circa 1850, Here We Come A-wassailing/Here We Come A-caroling
      Here we come a-wassailing
      Among the leaves so green;
      Here we come a-wand’ring
      So fair to be seen.
    • 1939, Alfred Edward Housman, Additional Poems, XIII, lines 6-7:
      Oh waste no words a-wooing
      The soft sleep to your bed;
    • 1964, Bob Dylan, "The Times They Are a-Changin' " (recorded 1963, released 1964):
      The order is rapidly fadin'
      And the first one now will later be last
      For the times they are a-changin'
    • circa 1970, bumper sticker:[2]
      If the van’s a-rockin’, don’t come a-knockin’.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English a-, a variant form of y-, from Old English ġe-, from Proto-Germanic *ga-, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (with).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. Obsolete form of y-. (archaic and dialectal) In dialect, it is sometimes conflated with sense 5 of the previous definition, and is used as a general indicator of a participle. [First attested around 1150 to 1350 (Middle English).][1]
    aware, alike

Etymology 4[edit]

From Anglo-Norman a-, from Old French e-, from Latin ex-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Forming words with the sense of wholly, or utterly out. [First attested from around 1150 to 1350.][1]
    abash

Etymology 5[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. Not, without, opposite of.
    amoral, asymmetry, atheism, asexual, acyclic, atypical
    • 1948 (revised 1952), Robert Graves, The White Goddess, Faber & Faber 1999, page 7:
      When invited to believe in the Chimaera, the horse-centaurs, or the winged horse Pegasus, all of them straightforward Pelasgian cult-symbols, a philosopher felt bound to reject them as a-zoölogical improbabilities [...].
    • 2012, Faramerz Dabhoiwala, The Origins of Sex, Penguin 2013, page 191:
      If aroused outside the proper outlet of marriage, [female lust] could range out of control, turning its possessor into an a-feminine monster: that is what happened to fallen women.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This prefix is referred to as alpha privative.
  • Used with stems that begin with consonants except sometimes h. an- is synonymous and is used in front of words that start with vowels and sometimes h.[3] For example, anesthetic and analgesic.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

From Middle English a-, from Middle French a-, from Latin ad (towards).

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Towards; Used to indicate direction, reduction to, increase to, change into, or motion. [First attested from around 1150 to 1350.][1]
    ascend, aspire, amass, abandon, avenue
Usage notes[edit]
  • Used on stems that started with sc, sp, or st, and also used on stems with a French origin.
  • Used in place of ad-.[4]

Etymology 7[edit]

From Latin ab (of, off, from, away)

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Away from. [First attested from around 1150 to 1350.][1]
    avert, aperient, abridge, assoil,[3] assoilzie
Usage notes[edit]
  • Variation of the prefix ab-, only used when the stem starts with the letter p or v, [3] or (rarely) s in which case the s is doubled (as in assoil and assoilzie).

Etymology 8[edit]

From Middle English a-, o- (of). See a (preposition, of)

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. (no longer productive) Of, from. [First attested prior to 1150.][1]
    anew, afresh, athirst[3]

Usage notes[edit]

Different Germanic senses of a- became confused – vaguely “intensive” – and are no longer productive. The Greek sense of “not” (e.g., amoral, asymmetry) remains productive.

“[I]t naturally happened that all these a- prefixes were at length confusedly lumped together in idea, and the resultant a- looked upon as vaguely intensive, rhetorical, euphonic [nice-sounding], or even archaic, and wholly otiose [pointless].” OED.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Brown, Lesley (2003)
  2. ^ See “Don’t Come A-Knockin’”, TV Tropes for more examples and discussion.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Urdang, Laurence (1984)
  4. ^ Lindberg, Christine A. (2007)

Etymology 9[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. Alternative form of -a (empty syllable added to songs, poetry, verse and other speech)

Etymology 10[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. (Chester) Used as a prefix to verbs in the sense of remaining in the same condition.[1]
    a-be, a-going
    Let that choilt a-be, wilt ta.Let that child alone, will you.[1]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Robert Holland, M.R.A.C., A Glossary of Words Used in the County of Chester, Part I--A to F., English Dialect Society, London, 1884, 1

A-Pucikwar[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. prefix attached to words relating to the mouth, such as the names of languages

Catalan[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-).

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a- (not, without)
    a- + ‎moral (moral) → ‎amoral (amoral)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin ad (towards).

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. Used to make verbs from adjectives and nouns
    a- + ‎feble (weak) → ‎afeblir (to weaken)
    a- + ‎sabor (taste) → ‎assaborir (to taste)
Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Choctaw[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a- (after another prefix -sa-, before vowels am-, class III first-person singular)

  1. the indirect object of an active transitive verb
    to me, for me
  2. the subject of an intransitive affective verb
    I
  3. the direct object of a small set of transitive verbs mostly dealing with affect, communication and intimacy
    me
  4. indicates possession of a noun
    my

Inflection[edit]


Danish[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a-, un- (not)
  2. A- (atomic, nuclear)
    Synonyms: atom-, A-

Derived terms[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /aː/
  • (file)

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a-: Not, without, opposite of.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-).

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. without, -less

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. (in loanwords) non-, un-
    Synonym: epä-

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old French a-, from Latin ad-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. A prefix forming words, especially verbs, that denote entering a state, making progress toward a goal, or the like.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel; generalized from the many Latin borrowings using this prefix.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a-, non-, -less.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a- (not, without, opposite of)

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • a-” in Duden online

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch a-, from Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a- (not, without, opposite of)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Indonesian words prefixed with a- not found

Further reading[edit]


Italian[edit]

Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia it

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin ad-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. ad- (indicating direction)

Usage notes[edit]

The Italian prefix a- often reduplicates the following consonant (syntactic gemination, raddoppiamento fonosintattico). The actual forms usually will be ab- (in abbracciare), ac- (in accorrere), ad- (in addestrare), al- (in allargare) etc.

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-).

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a- (indicating lack or loss)
    Synonym: an-

Derived terms[edit]


Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Prefix[edit]

ā-

  1. Alternative form of ab-

Usage notes[edit]

Used before bilabial voiced consonants: b-, m- and v-.

Etymology 2[edit]

From ad (towards)

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. (Before a word beginning with sc, sp or st) Alternative form of ad-
    a- + ‎scandere (climb) → ‎ascendere (climb up, go up; rise, spring up)
    a- + ‎scrībere (write) → ‎ascrībere (state in writing, add in writing; insert; appoint, enroll, enfranchise, reckon, number)
    a- + ‎spīrāre (breathe) → ‎aspīrāre (breathe or blow upon; am favorable to, assist, favor, aid; aspire or desire (to); approach, come near (to))
    a- + ‎specere (observe, look at) → ‎aspicere (look at or towards, behold; regard, respect; observe, notice; examine, inspect; consider, ponder)
    a- + ‎stringere (press, tighten, compress) → ‎astringere (draw close, bind or tie together; tighten, contract; check, restrain; oblige, necessitate)
    a- + ‎struere (compose, construct, build; ready, prepare; place, arrange) → ‎astruere (build near or to a thing, erect; build on, heap; build an additional structure)

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Via other European languages, ultimately from Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. Not, not having, without, opposite of.
    a- + ‎seksuāls → ‎aseksuāls

Navajo[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. someone's, people's

Usage notes[edit]

This prefix is often used as a neutral possessive pronoun to make the citation forms of inalienable nouns: amá (someone's mother), akʼos (someone's neck), ajáád (someone's leg), ajááʼ (someone's ear), akʼéí (someone's kin). The alternative is to use the prefix ha- (one's) or bi- (his/her/its/their) to make these dictionary forms.

See also[edit]


Northern Ndebele[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix[edit]

a- (medial wa-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gáá-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. of; class 6 possessive concord.

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. Class 6 relative concord.

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

The first letter of the Norwegian alphabet.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. indicating the first or best in something
    a-lag
    a-team
    Synonyms: a, A-

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-, not, without), from Proto-Hellenic *ə- (un-, not), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (not, un-). Also compare an- (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a- (not, without, opposite of)
    apolitiskapolitical
    asosialasocial
    asymmetriskasymmetrical
    agnostikeragnostic
    Synonyms: a, an-

Derived terms[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

First letter of the word atom (atom), from Ancient Greek ἄτομος (átomos, indivisible), from ἀ- (a-, not) +‎ τέμνω (témnō, I cut).

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. short form of atom-
    a-bombe
    atom bomb (a-bomb)

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • “a-” in The Bokmål Dictionary.
  • “a-” in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).
  • a-” in Store norske leksikon

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-, not, without).

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a- (not, without)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From an earlier form ar-, from Proto-Germanic *uz-. Cognate with Old High German ar-, ir- (German er-).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈɑː/ (as a nominal prefix)
  • IPA(key): /ɑː/ (as a verbal prefix)

Prefix[edit]

ā-

  1. from, away, off, out
    ānimanto take away, to remove

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle English: a-
    • English: a-

Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ad, which was often reduced to a- in compounds.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. indicating movement towards something
  2. (by extension) indicating a change of state
  3. intensifying prefix
  4. alternative form of es-

Derived terms[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a- (class A infixed pronoun)

  1. him (triggers eclipsis)
  2. it (triggers lenition)

Usage notes[edit]

This form merges with the prefixes ro-, no-, di-, to-, fo-, ar-, and imm- to form ra-, na-, da-, da-, fa-, ara-, imma- respectively. It disappears after the particle (not), its only trace being the mutation it causes (eclipsis in the case of the masculine, lenition in the case of the neuter), thus ní cara (does not love) vs. ní chara (does not love it), ní ben (does not strike) vs. ní mben (does not strike him).

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From an earlier form ar-, from Proto-Germanic *uz-. Cognate with Old English a-, Old High German ar-, ir- (German er-).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

ā-

  1. forming words with the sense from, away, out, off, e.g. āniman

Derived terms[edit]


Phuthi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix[edit]

a- (medial wa-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (un-, not), zero-grade form of *ne (not). Doublet of nie.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. forming words with the sense of negation
    a- + ‎społeczny → ‎aspołeczny

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • a- in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese a-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. added to adjective X, forms verbs meaning to make/turn X
    a- + vermelho (red) + -aravermelhar (to redden)
    a- + baixo (low) + -arabaixar (to lower)
  2. added to noun X, forms verbs meaning to cause or make X or to cause something to have X
    a- + pavor (dread) + -arapavorar (to frighten)
    a- + fama (fame) + -arafamar (to make famous)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a- (not; without)
    Synonym: in-

Derived terms[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (un-, not), zero-grade form of *ne (not). Doublet of ne.

Prefix[edit]

a- (Cyrillic spelling а-)

  1. Prefix prepended to words to denote a negation, deprivation or absence of a property denoted by base word.
    Synonyms: bez-, ne-

References[edit]

  • a-” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Southern Ndebele[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix[edit]

a- (medial wa-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gáá-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. of; class 6 possessive concord.

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. Class 6 relative concord.

Spanish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin ad-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. A prefix forming words, especially verbs, that denote entering a state, making progress toward a goal, or the like.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel; generalized from the many Latin borrowings using this prefix.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. a-, non-, -less
Usage notes[edit]
  • Used with stems that begin with consonants except h. an- is synonymous and is used in front of words that start with vowels and h. For example, analfabetismo (analphabetism).

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Swazi[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *à-.

Prefix[edit]

a- (medial ka-)

  1. he, she, it; class 1 subject concord, used in the subjunctive and potential mood.
See also[edit]
  • u- (in other cases)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix[edit]

a- (medial wa-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gáá-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. of; class 6 possessive concord.

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. affirmative prefix, emphasises prefixed word
    a- + ‎trist (sad) → ‎athrist (very sad, sorrowful)
    a- + ‎traidd (piercing, penetration) → ‎athraidd (permeable)

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
a- unchanged unchanged ha-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  • a-”, in R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies, 1950–present

Xhosa[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix[edit]

a- (medial wa-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gáá-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. of; class 6 possessive concord.

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. Class 6 relative concord.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *nkà-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. not
Usage notes[edit]

Used in the indicative mood, prefixed to the subject concord.


Zulu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *à-.

Prefix[edit]

á- (medial ká-)

  1. he, she, it; class 1 subject concord, used in the subjunctive and potential mood.
See also[edit]
  • u- (in other cases)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gá-.

Prefix[edit]

á- (medial wá-)

  1. they; class 6 subject concord.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *gáá-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. of; class 6 possessive concord.

Etymology 4[edit]

Originally a reduced form of la- (general demonstrative). Compare Swazi relative forms such as lesi-, which still keep the initial l-.

Prefix[edit]

ā́-

  1. Used to form relative clauses.

Usage notes[edit]

This prefix has conditioned allomorphs o- and e-.

Etymology 5[edit]

From a- (relative) +‎ a- (class 6).

Prefix[edit]

ā́-

  1. Class 6 relative concord.

Etymology 6[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *nkà-.

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. not
Usage notes[edit]

Used in the indicative mood, prefixed to the subject concord.

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Prefix[edit]

a-

  1. Alternative form of ma- (hortative)

References[edit]