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- Indicates association or togetherness; co-.
- Indicates completeness or wholeness. In verbs, also indicates perfectivity (a finished action).
Because of its perfective sense, it eventually became used as a marker of the past participle in the West Germanic languages.
- Old English: ġe-
- Old Frisian: ge-, e-
- Old Saxon: ga-, gi-, ge-
- Old Dutch: gi-, ge-
- Old High German: gi-, ga-, ki-, ka-
- Old Norse: g- (rare, found in e.g. gnógr, glíkr, greiðr, greiða, granni)
- Gothic: 𐌲𐌰- (ga-)