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- Indicates association or togetherness; co-.
- Indicates completeness or wholeness. In verbs, also indicates perfectivity (a finished action).
In Old Norse, *ga- only survives as a fossil in a few words. Its semantic function was, however, retained perfectly by the particle of.
- Proto-West Germanic: *ga-
- Old English: ġe-, gæ-; gi-; i-; ie-
- Old Frisian: ge-, gi-, je-, ie-, e-, i-, a-
- Old Saxon: gi-, i-, ge-, ga-
- Old Dutch: gi-, ge-
- Old High German: gi-, ga-, ki-, ka-
- Old Norse: g- (non-productive)
- Gothic: 𐌲𐌰- (ga-)
- Vandalic: *ga-