an-

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English an-, from Old English an-, on- (on-), from Proto-Germanic *ana- (on). More at on.

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. Alternative form of on-
    ancome, aneal, anent

Etymology 2[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀν- (an-).

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. not; used to make words that have a sense opposite to the word (or stem) to which the prefix is attached. Used with stems that begin with vowels and "h".
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Aromanian[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. Alternative form of ãn-

Classical Nahuatl[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • am- (when followed by a vowel or a consonant which is labial)

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. Subject prefix for verbs; it indicates that the subject is second-person plural; you, you all.

Cornish[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. un-, non-

References[edit]

  • 2018, Akademi Kernewek Gerlyver Kernewek (FSS) Cornish Dictionary (SWF) (2018 edition, p.11)

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀ- (a-) (ἀν- (an-) immediately preceding a vowel).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɑn/
  • (file)

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. an-: Not, without, opposite of.

Derived terms[edit]


French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. in-, an-. Alternative form of a- before a vowel or h

Derived terms[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *ana. Compare English on-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. Separable verb prefix, on
  2. Separable verb prefix, up

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From an (at, on).

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. at, on

Derived terms[edit]


Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish an-, from Proto-Celtic *an-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ana- (form used before consonants in Munster)

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. (with adjectives, always spelled with a hyphen) very
    Synonyms: fíor-, rí-
  2. (with adjectives) over-, excessively, intensely
  3. (with nouns) great, excessive
Usage notes[edit]
  • Triggers lenition (except of d, s, and t):
  • an- + ‎beag → ‎an-bheag (very small)
  • an- + ‎deas → ‎an-deas (very nice)
  • In some dialects (e.g. Aran), it also changes s to ts:
  • an- + ‎saor → ‎an-tsaor (very cheap) (standard form an-saor)
  • In Munster, this form is used only before a vowel; before a consonant the variant ana- is used.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish an-, in-, from Proto-Celtic *an-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ain- (used before slender vowels and consonants)

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an- (usually spelled without a hyphen)

  1. in-, un-, not
  2. bad, unnatural

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Ancient Greek ἀν- (an-).

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. an- (not)
Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
an- n-an- han- t-an-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]


Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the preposition an, from Proto-Germanic *in. Compare German ein-, English in-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. in- (indicates physical or metaphorical motion into something)

Usage notes[edit]

  • When attached to a verb stem beginning with a consonant sound other than /d/, /h/, /n/, /t/ or /t͡s/, the prefix becomes a- as a result of the Eifeler Regel.

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Malagasy[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. prefix element of an- -ana

See also[edit]


Middle Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *an-, from Proto-Celtic *an-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. un-, not

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Welsh: an-, af-

Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From ān (one).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

ān-

  1. one, uni-, only
    āncyn (only, unique)
  2. sole, single, solitary; alone
    ānbūend (hermit)
    ānġilde (single payment)

Old French[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. Alternative form of en-

Usage notes[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *an-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. un-, not
  2. very

Usage notes[edit]

Before c, the suffix becomes é-.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. Alternative form of a- used before words beginning with vowels

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • an- in Pali Text Society (1921–1925), Pali-English Dictionary, London: Chipstead. (licensed under CC-BY-NC)

Pipil[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. (personal) you, second-person plural subject marker.
    Antekitit tik ne mil?
    Do you work at the cornfield?

Usage notes[edit]

  • Before a vowel, an- changes to anh-. The digraph ⟨nh⟩ is pronounced as [ŋ]. Example:
Anhajsiket peyna.
You came early.

See also[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. un-, anti-
  2. bad, unnatural

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. Used to emphasise the root.

Derived terms[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the Old Swedish and- meaning “against/towards”.

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. against, towards

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Welsh an-, from Proto-Brythonic *an-, from Proto-Celtic *an-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-.[1]

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. not, un-, non-, an-, dis-, negative prefix
    an- + ‎parch (respect) → ‎amarch (disrespect)
    an- + ‎prisiadwy (valuable) → ‎amhrisiadwy (invaluable)
    an- + ‎cofio (to remember) → ‎anghofio (to forget)
    an- + ‎diwedd (end) → ‎anniwedd (endless)
    an- + ‎teg (fair) → ‎annheg (unfair)
    an- + ‎mantais (advantage) → ‎anfantais (disadvantage)
    Synonym: af- (used before gl, ll, rh, and consonantal i)
Usage notes[edit]

Triggers the nasal mutation of p, t, c and d, sometimes with accompanying euphonic or orthographic adjustments, and the soft mutation of b, g and m.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *ande- or *ando-

Prefix[edit]

an-

  1. intensive prefix
  2. in-

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
an- unchanged unchanged han-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ J. Morris Jones, A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative (Oxford 1913), § 156 i 5.

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950-), “an-”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies