af-

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
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See also: af, AF, aF, A.F., and äf

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse af-. Compare German ab-, Swedish av-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

af-

  1. de-, to cause to cease to be
    tabuisere (to taboo) -> aftabuisere (to detaboo)
    klassificere (classify, make classified (secret)) -> afklassificere (declassify, make unclassified)
    militarisere (militarize) -> afmilitarisere (demilitarize)
    mystificere (mystify) -> afmystificere (demystify)
  2. off, from (signifies removal)
    rive (rip) -> afrive (rip off)
    skrælle (peel) -> afskrælle

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ultimately from Proto-Germanic *ab.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɑf/
  • (file)

Prefix[edit]

af-

  1. (prefix) de-, en-
  2. down
  3. off

Derived terms[edit]


Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

af-

  1. Romanization of 𐌰𐍆-

Icelandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse af-, from Proto-Germanic *aba-.

Prefix[edit]

af-

  1. de-

Derived terms[edit]


Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *aba-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

af-

  1. away, off, from, away from
    ofcuman, afcumanto come from, originate from

Usage notes[edit]

  • This is a verbal prefix. The noun counterpart of this prefix is æf-.

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *aba-.

Prefix[edit]

af-

  1. Combining form of af.

Derived terms[edit]


Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *aba-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (off, away).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

af-

  1. Forming verbs and adjectives with the sense of "off", "away", "from", "out of", "away from"
    afgevan/afgeƀan (to give up, surrender)
  2. down
    afbrekan (break down, pluck)
    afheldian (go down, end)

Swedish[edit]

Prefix[edit]

af-

  1. Obsolete spelling of av-

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *aβ̃-, from Proto-Celtic *am-, allophonic variant of *an-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

af-

  1. not, un-, non-, an-, dis-, negative prefix
    af- + ‎glân (clean; honest) → ‎aflan (corrupt, evil)
    af- + ‎llwyddiannus (successful) → ‎aflwyddiannus (unsuccessful)
    af- + ‎rhwydd (easy) → ‎afrwydd (difficult)
    af- + ‎iechyd (health) → ‎afiechyd (sickness, illness)
    Synonym: an-
Usage notes[edit]

The prefix af- triggers the soft mutation. It is used only before gl, ll, rh, and consonantal i, with an- used elsewhere.

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
af- unchanged unchanged haf-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present) , “af-”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies