and-

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English and-, ond-, from Old English and-, ond- (against, back), from Proto-Germanic *and-, *anda-, *andi- (across, opposite, against, away), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti (across, forth). Cognate with Dutch ont-, German ant-, ent-, emp-, Icelandic and-, Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌳- (and-), Latin ante (before), Ancient Greek ἀντί (antí, against). Doublet of anti- and ante-.

Prefix[edit]

and-

  1. (no longer productive) A prefix of Old English origin meaning "against", "back", "in return", "away", represented in Modern English by a-, an-, on-, and in altered form by the reverse-action prefix un- (e.g. unbuckle). Also as the initial letter d in dread (< Old English ondrǣdan).
    along
    answer
    onfang

References[edit]

  • and- in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.

Anagrams[edit]


Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

and-

  1. Romanization of 𐌰𐌽𐌳-

Icelandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse and-.

Prefix[edit]

and-

  1. anti-, against, opposing

Derived terms[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse and-, from Proto-Germanic *anda-, *andi-. Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (face, front).

Prefix[edit]

and-

  1. against, opposite

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *andi-, representive of a combining form of and (and). Cognate with Middle Dutch ont- (Dutch ont-), Old High German ant- (German ant-, ent-), Old Norse and- (Icelandic and- (against, anti-, opposed to, in the face of), Swedish an-), Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌳- (and-).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

and-

  1. against, opposing
    andsacaopponent, adversary
  2. in return, back
    andswaruanswer, reply
  3. facing, toward
    andweardpresent time
  4. completely, fully
    andlangentire, continuous
    andweorcsubstance, matter, cause
    andleofen(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    ,
    andleofanourishment, sustenance
  5. without

Usage notes[edit]

This prefix was usually stressed; when unstressed, it weakened to an-, on-, or sometimes a-.

Derived terms[edit]

Synonyms[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *anda-, *andi-. Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (face, forehead, front).

Prefix[edit]

and-

  1. denotes whatever is opposite, against, towards
    and- + ‎vitni (testimony) → ‎andvitni (contradictory testimony)
  2. (by extension) hostile, adverse

Usage notes[edit]

The spellings an- or ann- are often used in compounds.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Icelandic: and-
  • Norwegian Nynorsk: and-
  • Norwegian Bokmål: and-

References[edit]

  • and- in A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, G. T. Zoëga, Clarendon Press, 1910, at Internet Archive.

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *andi-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

and-

  1. against, opposing; opposition
    andsako (enemy, adversary)
  2. in return, back
    andswor "answer"
  3. facing, toward; completely, fully
    andward "present time"
  4. without