in-

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

PIE word
*h₁én

From Middle English in-, from Old English in- (in, into, prefix), from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én. More at in.

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in, into, towards, within.
    inhold, inmove, intake, inthrill
    inborn, inbound
    infield, infighting, insight, intalk, inwork
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
terms derived from in-: toward
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English in-, borrowed (in words of Latinate origin) from Latin in-, from Latin in, from Proto-Indo-European *en (cognate to Germanic in-, above). Often borrowed from French in- (e.g. incise, incite, incline, indication), or as French en-, originally from Latin in.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in, into
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
Usage notes[edit]

In direction sense, used in Latinate terms, and opposed by ex-, e-, rather than Germanic out-; senses not always strict antonyms. Examples include infiltrate/exfiltrate, ingress/egress, invade/evade.

Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
terms derived from in-: direction
terms derived from in-: tendency

Etymology 3[edit]

PIE word
*ne

From Middle English in-, borrowed (in words of latinate origin) from Latin in- (not). Sometimes the Latin word has passed through French before reaching English (e.g. incapable, incertainty, inclement, incompatible). Compare un-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (non-productive) Used with certain words to reverse their meaning
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
    1. (non-productive) Added to adjectives to mean not
      inedible
      inaccurate
    2. (non-productive) Added to nouns to mean lacking or without
      incredulity
      ineptitude
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
terms derived from in-: reversing meaning
Translations[edit]
Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin in- (un-, not).

Prefix[edit]

in- (before l il-, before b, m, or p im-, before r ir-)

  1. in- ; un- (reversal of meaning or lack of an attribute)

Derived terms[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. from the adverb in
  2. prepended to a noun or adjective, it reinforces the quality signified thereby
  3. prepended to an adjective to negate its meaning; occurs mostly in borrowed terms from French: in-, un-

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin in- (un-, not).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (before a consonant) /ɛ̃/, (before a vowel) /in/
  • (file)

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in-; un- (indicates negation)

Derived terms[edit]


German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Ultimately from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *en. More at in.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (rare) in, into
    Synonyms: ein-, inne-
    in- + ‎Schrift (writing) → ‎Inschrift (inscription)
    in- + ‎Sasse (someone who sits) → ‎Insasse (passenger, inhabitant)
    in- + ‎Begriff (concept) → ‎Inbegriff (embodiment)
Usage notes[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Latin in-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (rarely productive, only with Latinate stems) in, into
    in- + ‎filtrieren (to filter) → ‎infiltrieren (to infiltrate)

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Latin in-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (rarely productive, only with Latinate stems) in-, un- (indicates negation)
    Synonyms: un-, nicht-
    in- + ‎konsequent (consistent) → ‎inkonsequent (inconsistent)
Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • in-” in Duden online
  • in-” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

in-

  1. Romanization of 𐌹𐌽-

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch in-, from French in-, from Latin in- (un-, not).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ɪn]
  • Hyphenation: in

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in-: used with certain words to reverse their meaning.

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. capable of, fit for, fit to be
    Antonym: do-

Etymology 2[edit]

From i, in (in).

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. en-, in-, il-, im-, ir-
  2. endo-
  3. intra-
Alternative forms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
in- n-in- hin- t-in-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

  • "in-" in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “in-” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Italian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • im- (assimilated form before b-/m-/p-)
  • il- (assimilated form before l-)
  • ir- (assimilated form before r-)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /in/
    • Hyphenation: in-
  • IPA(key): [iɱ] (before f or v)
  • IPA(key): [iŋ] (before c or g)

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin in-, a prefixation of in (in, into), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (forms verbs) Used to denote derivation.
  2. (obsolete, rare) Used as an intensifier.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The prefix is used together with a verbal ending suffix to derive causative verbs from adjectives or nouns:
Examples:
in- + ‎arido (dry”, “arid) → ‎inaridire (to parch”, “to dry up)
in- + ‎fiamma (flame) → ‎infiammare (to enflame”, “to kindle)
  • When used with verbs, it's usually a reflection of derivation in Latin, and retains the original meaning of “into”, “inside”:
Example:
in- + ‎fondere → ‎infondere (to infuse”, “to instill) (cfr. Latin īnfundere)
  • In some cases, the meaning of “into” can also be found in verbs of modern derivation:
Example:
in- + ‎carcere (jail”, “prison) → ‎incarcerare (to imprison”, “to incarcerate)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin in- (un-, not), from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-, zero grade form of the sentence negative *ne.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Used to denote negation or opposition or privation; un-; in-; a-
Usage notes[edit]
  • The suffix is usually found in adjectives (and nouns therefrom derived):
Examples:
in- + ‎coerente (coherent”, “consistent) → ‎incoerente (incoherent”, “inconsistent)
in- + ‎abile (able”, “capable) → ‎inabile (unable”, “incapable)
in- + ‎felice (happy) → ‎infelice (unhappy)
in- + ‎desiderabile (desirable; advisable) → ‎indesiderabile (undesirable, unwelcome)
  • More rarely, it is found in adjectives derived from nouns:
Example:
in- + ‎colore (colour) → ‎incolore (uncoloured)
Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *en-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- (not), zero-grade form of the negative particle *ne (not). Akin to ne-, , .[1]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. un-, non-, not
Usage notes[edit]

Affixed primarily to adjectives.

The pronunciation or spelling of the prefix may be changed in some situations:

  • Before b, p or m, it may become im-. The spelling in- is also found in this context.
    in- + ‎barba (beard) → ‎imberbis (beardless) or inberbis.
    in- + ‎patiēns (patient) → ‎impatiēns (impatient) or inpatiēns.
    in- + ‎mātūrus (mature) → ‎immātūrus (immature) or inmātūrus.
  • Before l or r, it may become il- or ir-, respectively. These assimilations only became usual in post-Augustan Latin: until a late date, the usual Roman spellings were inl- and inr-.[2]
    in- + ‎labōrātus (worked, toilsome) → ‎illabōrātus (unworked, uncultivated) (post-Augustan) or inlabōrātus.
    in- + ‎reverēns (reverent) → ‎irreverēns (irreverent) (post-Augustan) or inreverēns.
  • Before gn and sometimes n, it becomes ig- (pronounced [ɪŋ-]).
    in- + ‎gnārus (knowlegable) → ‎ignārus (ignorant)
    in- + ‎nōmen (name) → ‎ignōminia (dishonor)
  • Before f or s, it becomes īn- (pronounced [ĩː-]).
    in- + ‎fīnītus (finite) → ‎īnfīnītus (endless, infinite)
    in- + ‎sānus (healthy, sane) → ‎īnsānus (mad, insane)
  • Before g, c or q, the spelling remains in-, but the pronunciation becomes [ɪŋ-].
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Catalan: in- (sometimes i-, or im- before p, b and m)
  • French: in-
  • Italian: in-
  • Middle English: in-
  • Portuguese: in- (im- before p or b, i- before l, n, or m, and ir- before r))
  • Spanish: in- (im- before p or b, i- before l, and ir- before r)

Etymology 2[edit]

Prefixation of the preposition in.[3]

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in, within, inside
    in- + ‎hālō (breathe) → ‎inhālō (breathe in, inhale)
  2. into, upon, on, against
    in- + ‎gradior (step, go) → ‎ingredior (go into, enter)
    in- + ‎nūbō (marry) → ‎innūbō (marry into)
    in- + ‎cadō (fall) → ‎incidō (fall into, fall upon)
    in- + ‎pangō (set, fix, settle, fasten) → ‎impingō (fasten upon, dash against, strike against)
    in- + ‎flīgō (strike) → ‎īnflīgō (strike on, strike against, inflict, impose upon)
    in- + ‎vocō (call) → ‎invocō (call on, call upon, invoke)
  3. Used as an intensifier.
    in- + ‎crepō (I rattle) → ‎increpō (I rattle, rebuke)
  4. Attached to inchoative verbs, can express the sense of a change being started or reaching partial completion
    in- + ‎ārēscō (I am drying, am growing drier) → ‎inārēscō (I start becoming dry, become somewhat dry)[4]
Usage notes[edit]

Affixed primarily to verbs.

The same spelling rules apply as for Etymology 1 above; see the usage notes there.

Not to be confused with Etymology 1 above, which means "not".

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *énu (along, after). Cognate with Sanskrit अनु (after, ánu-), Avestan 𐬀𐬥𐬎(anu, after; corresponding to), Old Persian 𐎠𐎵𐎺 (a-nu-v /anuv/), and Gothic 𐌹𐌽𐌿 (inu, without) (whose meaning developed “along” > “past” > “without”).[5]

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. after
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Walde, Alois; Hofmann, Johann Baptist (1938), “1. in-”, in Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 1, 3rd edition, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, pages 676f.
  2. ^ William Gardner Hale and Carl Darling Buck, 1903. Latin Grammar, page 25
  3. ^ Walde, Alois; Hofmann, Johann Baptist (1938), “2. in”, in Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 1, 3rd edition, Heidelberg: Carl Winter, pages 677f.
  4. ^ Haverling, Gerd. "On Prefixes and Actionality in Classical and Late Latin." Acta Linguistica Hungarica, vol. 50, no. 1–2, 2003, pp. 113–35, http://www.jstor.org/stable/26189816. Accessed 6 Apr. 2022. Page 117
  5. ^ Dunkel, George E. (2014), “Lexikon [Lexicon]”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme [Lexicon of Indo-European Particles and Pronominal Stems] (Indogermanische Bibliothek. 2. Reihe: Wörterbücher) (in German), volume 2, Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, →ISBN, pages 241-44

Further reading[edit]

  • in-”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 301

Maltese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

in-

  1. Alternative form of il-

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used before the letter n. For details on usage, see the main lemma.

Northern Ndebele[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-n-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes[edit]

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


Ojibwe[edit]

Initial[edit]

in- (root)

  1. Alternative form of iN-

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Alternative form of nin-

See also[edit]


Old English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From in (in). More at in.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in, into
    in- + ‎ēþung (breathing) → ‎inēþung (inspiration)
  2. internal, inside
    in- + ‎coþu (disease) → ‎incoþu (internal disease)
    in- + ‎weorc (work) → ‎inweorc (indoor work)
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle English: in-

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *in- (strong, adj), from Proto-Indo-European *indʰro- (swelling; strong), from *oyd- (to swell).

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (intensifying) very
    in- + ‎frōd (wise) → ‎infrōd (very wise)
    in- + ‎dryhten (noble) → ‎indryhten (very noble)
Derived terms[edit]

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *eni-. Prefix form of i. Conflated with ind- quite early.

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in
Usage notes[edit]

Very frequently replaced by ad- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

Sometimes replaced by as- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *an-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Alternative form of an- (un-, not)
Usage notes[edit]

Used before d and g and occasionally other sounds.[1]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thurneysen, Rudolf (1940, reprinted 2003)D. A. Binchy and Osborn Bergin, transl., A Grammar of Old Irish, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, →ISBN, § 872, page 544

Etymology 3[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in- (class C infixed pronoun)

  1. Alternative form of id-

Portuguese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • im- (before p or b)
  • ir- (before r)
  • i- (before m, n or l)

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin in- (un-, not).

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. un-; not

Derived terms[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • im- (before p or b)
  • ir- (before r)
  • i- (before l)

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin in- (un-, not).

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. not (negation)

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Swazi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-n-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes[edit]

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


Tagalog[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Prefix form of -in.

Derived terms[edit]


Xhosa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-n-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes[edit]

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *jɪ̀-n-.

Prefix[edit]

ín-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes[edit]

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v). Before l, m or n, the prefix becomes i-.

References[edit]