in-

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English in-, from Old English in- ‎(in, into, prefix), from Proto-Germanic *in ‎(in, into), from Proto-Indo-European *en ‎(in, into). More at in.

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Prefixed to certain words to give the senses of in, into, towards, within.
    inhold, intake, inthrill
    inborn, inbound
    infield, infighting, insight, inwork
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin in. Sometimes the Latin word has passed through French before reaching English (e.g. incise, incite, incline, indication).

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in, into
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin in- ‎(not). Sometimes the Latin word has passed through French before reaching English (e.g. incapable, incertainty, inclement, incompatible). Compare un-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (non-productive) Used with certain words to reverse their meaning
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
    1. (non-productive) Added to adjectives to mean not
      inedible
      inaccurate
    2. (non-productive) Added to nouns to mean lacking or without
      incredulity
      ineptitude
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

See also[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin in-.

Prefix[edit]

in- ‎(before l il-, before b, m, or p im-, before r ir-)

  1. in- ; un- (reversal of meaning or lack of an attribute)

Derived terms[edit]



Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. from the adverb in
  2. prepended to a noun or adjective, it reinforces the quality signified thereby
  3. prepended to an adjective to negate its meaning; occurs mostly in borrowed terms from French: in-, un-



French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin in-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in-; un- (indicates negation)

Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. en-
  2. endo-
  3. intra-

Derived terms[edit]



Italian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • im- (assimilated form before b-/m-/p-)
  • il- (assimilated form before l-)
  • ir- (assimilated form before r-)

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin in ‎(in”, “into), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (forms verbs) Used to denote derivation.
  2. (obsolete, rare) Used as an intensifier.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The prefix is used together with a verbal ending suffix to derive causative verbs from adjectives or nouns:
Examples:
in- + ‎arido ‎(dry”, “arid) → ‎inaridire ‎(to parch”, “to dry up)
in- + ‎fiamma ‎(flame) → ‎infiammare ‎(to enflame”, “to kindle)
  • When used with verbs, it's usually a reflection of derivation in Latin, and retains the original meaning of “into”, “inside”:
Example:
in- + ‎fondere → ‎infondere ‎(to infuse”, “to instill) (cfr. Latin īnfundere)
  • In some cases, the meaning of “into” can also be found in verbs of modern derivation:
Example:
in- + ‎carcere ‎(jail”, “prison) → ‎incarcerare ‎(to imprison”, “to incarcerate)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin in-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-, zero grade form of the sentence negative *ne.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Used to denote negation or opposition or privation; un-; in-; a-
Usage notes[edit]
  • The suffix is usually found in adjectives (and nouns therefrom derived):
Examples:
in- + ‎coerente ‎(coherent”, “consistent) → ‎incoerente ‎(incoherent”, “inconsistent)
in- + ‎abile ‎(able”, “capable) → ‎inabile ‎(unable”, “incapable)
in- + ‎felice ‎(happy) → ‎infelice ‎(unhappy)
  • More rarely, it is found in adjectives derived from nouns:
Example:
in- + ‎colore ‎(colour) → ‎incolore ‎(uncoloured)

Derived terms[edit]



Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (assimilated form before b-/p-/m-): im-
  • (assimilated form before l-): il-
  • (assimilated form before r-): ir-
  • (assimilated form before g-): ī-
  • (assimilated form before n-): ig-

Etymology[edit]

From earlier *en-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥- ‎(not), zero-grade form of the negative particle *ne ‎(not). Akin to ne-, , .

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. un-, non- negation prefix

Usage notes[edit]

The spelling of the particle changes in some situations:

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 301

Old English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From in ‎(in). More at in

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in, into; on, upon
    in- + ‎blāwan ‎(to blow; to breathe) → ‎inblāwan ‎(to inspire, breathe upon)
    inēodan ‎(to enter)
    inēþung ‎(inspiration)
  2. internal, positioned on the inside, inside
    in- + ‎coþu ‎(disease, sickness) → ‎incoþu ‎(internal disease)
    indryhten ‎(distinguished, noble, courtly, excellent), from indryhtu ‎(honor, glory, nobility)
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *in- ‎(strong, adj), from Proto-Indo-European *indʰro- ‎(swelling; strong), from *oyd- ‎(to swell).

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (intensifying) very
    in- + ‎frōd ‎(wise) → ‎infrōd ‎(very old, experienced, wise)

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *eni ‎(in); compare preposition i.

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in

Derived terms[edit]


Usage notes[edit]

Very frequently replaced by ad- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

Sometimes replaced by as- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

References[edit]

  • Rudolf Thurneysen, A Grammar of Old Irish (Dublin, 1946), pp. 518–22

Etymology 2[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in- ‎(class C infixed pronoun)

  1. Alternative form of id-

Portuguese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • im- (before P or B)
  • ir- (before R)

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. un-; not

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin in-

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. not (negation)

Zulu[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in- ‎(full noun prefix, basic form n-)

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes[edit]

The form in- is used in most cases, but im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (m, b or p).

See also[edit]