in-

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English in-, from Old English in-(in, into, prefix), from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *en. More at in.

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Prefixed to certain words to give the senses of in, into, towards, within.
    inhold, intake, inthrill
    inborn, inbound
    infield, infighting, insight, intalk, inwork
Antonyms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowing from Latin in-, from Latin in, from Proto-Indo-European *en (cognate to Germanic in-, above). Originally Latin word often passed via borrowing from French in- (e.g. incise, incite, incline, indication), or as French en-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in, into
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
Usage notes[edit]

In direction sense, used in Latinate terms, and opposed by ex-, e-, rather than Germanic out-; senses not always strict antonyms. Examples include infiltrate/exfiltrate, ingress/egress, invade/evade.

Antonyms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin in-(not). Sometimes the Latin word has passed through French before reaching English (e.g. incapable, incertainty, inclement, incompatible). Compare un-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (non-productive) Used with certain words to reverse their meaning
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
    1. (non-productive) Added to adjectives to mean not
      inedible
      inaccurate
    2. (non-productive) Added to nouns to mean lacking or without
      incredulity
      ineptitude
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin in-.

Prefix[edit]

in- ‎(before l il-, before b, m, or p im-, before r ir-)

  1. in- ; un- (reversal of meaning or lack of an attribute)

Derived terms[edit]



Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. from the adverb in
  2. prepended to a noun or adjective, it reinforces the quality signified thereby
  3. prepended to an adjective to negate its meaning; occurs mostly in borrowed terms from French: in-, un-



French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin in-.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in-; un- (indicates negation)

Derived terms[edit]



Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

in-

  1. Romanization of 𐌹𐌽-

Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. en-
  2. endo-
  3. intra-

Derived terms[edit]



Italian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • im- (assimilated form before b-/m-/p-)
  • il- (assimilated form before l-)
  • ir- (assimilated form before r-)

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin in(in”, “into), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (forms verbs) Used to denote derivation.
  2. (obsolete, rare) Used as an intensifier.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The prefix is used together with a verbal ending suffix to derive causative verbs from adjectives or nouns:
Examples:
in- + ‎arido(dry”, “arid) → ‎inaridire(to parch”, “to dry up)
in- + ‎fiamma(flame) → ‎infiammare(to enflame”, “to kindle)
  • When used with verbs, it's usually a reflection of derivation in Latin, and retains the original meaning of “into”, “inside”:
Example:
in- + ‎fondere → ‎infondere(to infuse”, “to instill) (cfr. Latin īnfundere)
  • In some cases, the meaning of “into” can also be found in verbs of modern derivation:
Example:
in- + ‎carcere(jail”, “prison) → ‎incarcerare(to imprison”, “to incarcerate)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin in-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-, zero grade form of the sentence negative *ne.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. Used to denote negation or opposition or privation; un-; in-; a-
Usage notes[edit]
  • The suffix is usually found in adjectives (and nouns therefrom derived):
Examples:
in- + ‎coerente(coherent”, “consistent) → ‎incoerente(incoherent”, “inconsistent)
in- + ‎abile(able”, “capable) → ‎inabile(unable”, “incapable)
in- + ‎felice(happy) → ‎infelice(unhappy)
in- + ‎desiderabile(desirable; advisable) → ‎indesiderabile(undesirable, unwelcome)
  • More rarely, it is found in adjectives derived from nouns:
Example:
in- + ‎colore(colour) → ‎incolore(uncoloured)

Derived terms[edit]



Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *en-, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥-(not), zero-grade form of the negative particle *ne(not). Akin to ne-, , .

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. un-, non-, not
Usage notes[edit]

Affixed primarily to adjectives.

The spelling of the prefix changes in some situations:

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From the preposition in.

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in, inside
Usage notes[edit]

Affixed primarily to verbs.

For variants, see in-(not).

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  • in- in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 301

Old English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From in(in). More at in

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in, into; on, upon
    in- + ‎blāwan(to blow; to breathe) → ‎inblāwan(to inspire, breathe upon)
    inēodan(to enter)
    inēþung(inspiration)
  2. internal, positioned on the inside, inside
    in- + ‎coþu(disease, sickness) → ‎incoþu(internal disease)
    indryhten(distinguished, noble, courtly, excellent), from indryhtu(honor, glory, nobility)
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *in-(strong, adj), from Proto-Indo-European *indʰro-(swelling; strong), from *oyd-(to swell).

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. (intensifying) very
    in- + ‎frōd(wise) → ‎infrōd(very old, experienced, wise)

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *eni-. Prefix form of i.

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. in

Derived terms[edit]


Usage notes[edit]

Very frequently replaced by ad- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

Sometimes replaced by as- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning ‘in’ is not transparent, e.g.:

References[edit]

  • Rudolf Thurneysen, A Grammar of Old Irish (Dublin, 1946), pp. 518–22

Etymology 2[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in- ‎(class C infixed pronoun)

  1. Alternative form of id-

Portuguese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • im- (before P or B)
  • ir- (before R)

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. un-; not

Derived terms[edit]



Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin in-

Prefix[edit]

in-

  1. not (negation)

Derived terms[edit]



Zulu[edit]

Prefix[edit]

in- ‎(full noun prefix, basic form n-)

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes[edit]

The form in- is used in most cases, but im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (m, b or p).

See also[edit]