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  1. related in an unspecific way. A lexical suffix with no fixed meaning or part of speech.[1]
    brako (arm) → brakumi (to hug)
    dekstra (right) → dekstruma (clockwise)
    komuna (common) → komunumo (community)
    mondo (world) → mondumo (high society)
    proksima (near) → proksimume (approximately)
    kruco (cross) → krucumi (crucify)
    kolo (neck) → kolumo (collar)

Usage notes[edit]

Because meanings of words derived with this suffix cannot be predicted, each derivation requires a separate dictionary entry. The part of speech is specific to each coining, and not inherent in either the suffix or the stem to which it is attached.

Among other uses:

Derived terms[edit]


  1. ^ Wennergren, Bertilo (2011-06-02), "UM" (in Esperanto), Plena Manlibro de Esperanta Gramatiko. URL accessed on 2010-11-20.