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  1. related in an unspecific way. A lexical suffix with no fixed meaning or part of speech.[1]
    brako ‎(arm) → brakumi ‎(to hug)
    dekstra ‎(right) → dekstruma ‎(clockwise)
    komuna ‎(common) → komunumo ‎(community)
    mondo ‎(world) → mondumo ‎(high society)
    proksima ‎(near) → proksimume ‎(approximately)
    kruco ‎(cross) → krucumi ‎(crucify)
    kolo ‎(neck) → kolumo ‎(collar)

Usage notes[edit]

Because meanings of words derived with this suffix cannot be predicted, each derivation requires a separate dictionary entry. The part of speech is specific to each coining, and not inherent in either the suffix or the stem to which it is attached.

Among other uses:

Derived terms[edit]


  1. ^ Wennergren, Bertilo (2011-06-02), "UM" (in Esperanto), Plena Manlibro de Esperanta Gramatiko. URL accessed on 2010-11-20.