um-

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English um-, umbe-, embe-, from Old English ymb-, ymbe- ‎(around), from Proto-Germanic *umbi ‎(around, about, by, near), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂m̥bʰi ‎(round about, around). Cognate with Dutch om- ‎(around), German um- ‎(around), Latin amb- ‎(around, about), Latin ambi- ‎(both), Ancient Greek ἀμφί ‎(amphí, around, about), Sanskrit अभि ‎(abhi, against, about). More at umbe.

Prefix[edit]

um-

  1. (no longer productive, obsolete outside dialects, chiefly Scotland) Prefix meaning around, about.

Derived terms[edit]


Faroese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the preposition um.

Prefix[edit]

um-

  1. over, about, around

Derived terms[edit]



German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

um- (separable or inseparable)

  1. round, round about
  2. repeatedly, over again, re-
  3. in another way
  4. to the ground, down, over

Usage notes[edit]

When this prefix is separable, the stress falls on the prefix: ˈumbiegen, ˈumbilden, ˈumdeuten, ˈumgeben. When inseparable, the stress falls on the root: umˈflattern, umˈfluten, umˈgaukeln, umˈmauern.

Derived terms[edit]


Tagalog[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Austronesian *-um-

Prefix[edit]

um-

  1. actor trigger: to do something
    Kumain ako.
    I ate. (I is focused.)
  2. no trigger: expresses natural phenomena
    Umulan kanina.
    It rained a while ago. (Nothing is focused.)
  3. actor trigger: to become or get
    Parang pumayat si Gloria.
    It looks like Gloria got thinner. (Gloria is focused.)
  4. actor trigger: (with root word reduplication) to do something occasionally, at random, a little, a bit, now and then or here and there
    Kumakain-kain ako pag wala akong magagawa.
    I eat a little bit when I have nothing to do. (I is focused.)

Usage note[edit]

Mag- vs. um-[edit]

  • The affix mag- is usually used for verbs which involve an exterior object, whereas um- is used for verbs which don't.
    Nagtanong ako sa guro. = I asked the teacher.
    Umalis na ako. = I already left.
  • Mag- is also used for deliberate actions, while um- can be used for involuntary actions.
    Lumalaki ang bata. = The child grew.
  • Some words can also change meaning if either one of them is used.
    Root word: alis = to go
    mag-alis = to remove
    umalis = to leave
    Root word: sakay = riding
    magsakay = to load
    sumakay = to ride

See also[edit]

Category Tagalog words prefixed with um- not found



Zulu[edit]

Prefix[edit]

um- ‎(full noun prefix, basic form m-)

  1. Class 1 and 3 noun prefix.

Usage notes[edit]

The form um- is used with stems that have more than one syllable, such as umfana or umlilo. With stems of only one syllable, the prefix is umu-.

See also[edit]