ku-

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Indonesian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Malay ku-, from ku, shortened form of aku, from Proto-Malayic *aku, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *aku, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *aku, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *aku, from Proto-Austronesian *aku.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. I (personal pronoun)

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Kambera[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ku-

  1. first person singular nominative proclitic

See also[edit]

Makasar[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ku- (nominative proclitic, Lontara spelling ᨀᨘ)

  1. I
  2. we (first person plural exclusive)

See also[edit]

Malay[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From ku, shortened form of aku, from Proto-Malayic *aku, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *aku, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *aku, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *aku, from Proto-Austronesian *aku.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

ku- (Jawi spellingکو-⁩) (informal)

  1. I (personal pronoun)
    Kutahu.
    I know.

See also[edit]

Northern Ndebele[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. you; second-person singular object concord.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. it; class 15 subject concord.
  2. it; class 15 object concord.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. it; class 17 subject concord.
  2. it; class 17 object concord.

Phuthi[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. you; second-person singular object concord.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. Class 15 noun prefix; forms the infinitive of verbs.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. it; class 15 subject concord.
  2. it; class 15 object concord.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. it; class 17 subject concord.
  2. it; class 17 object concord.

Southern Ndebele[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. you; second-person singular object concord.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. it; class 15 subject concord.
  2. it; class 15 object concord.

Swahili[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (in certain cases before a vowel) kw-

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. ku class(XV) noun prefix; used before verb stem with eventual object concord to form infinitive
    1. used to form verbnoun
      Kufanya kazi ni muhimu ili kupata pesa.
      Working is important in order to earn money.
    2. used after auxiliary verbs that do not require subject agreement and tense/aspect marking on the dependent verb
      Nataka kukisoma.
      I want to read it.
      Ilisababisha watu kujifunza zaidi.
      It caused people to study more.
      • 2023, “Waasi wa ADF wadaiwa kuwaua raia”, in DW[1]:
        Watu wasiopungua kumi wanadaiwa kuuawa na wengine zaidi ya thelathini kujeruhiwa vibaya.
        At least ten people are claimed to have been killed and more than thirty others to have been seriously injured.
    3. used after -a (including in the presense of a subject)
      kitabu cha kufundishiabook of instruction
      baada ya kipindi kupitaafter the period passes/passed
    4. used after na to replace elided subject agreement and tense/aspect marking
      Nilisoma na kuandika.
      I read and wrote.
  2. ku class(XV)/ku class(XVII) adjective agreement prefix
    Kusafiri ni kuzuri sana.
    Traveling is great.
    mahali kuzuria nice area
  3. verb-initial form of -ku- (you, 2st person singular (or, if with suffix -ni, plural) object concord)
See also[edit]
Swahili TAM markers
Initial
Positive infinitive ku-/kw-1
Negative infinitive kuto-
Habitual hu-1
Telegrammic ka-1
Final
General (positive indicative) -a
Positive subjunctive -e
Negative present -i
Second person plural -ni
Infix position
positive subject concord
Positive past -li-
Positive present -na-
Positive future -ta-
Negative subjunctive -si-1
Positive present conditional -nge-
Negative present conditional -singe-
Positive past conditional -ngali-
Negative past conditional -singali-
Gnomic -a-1
Perfect -me-
"Already" past -lisha-
"Already" present -mesha-/-sha-
"If/When" -ki-1
"If not" -sipo-
Consecutive -ka-1
Infix position
negative subject concord
Negative past -ku-1
Negative future -ta-
"Not yet" -ja-1
Negative present conditional -nge-
Negative past conditional -ngali-
Relative
Past -li-
Present -na-
Future -taka-
Negative -si-
1 Can take stress and therefore does not require -ku-/-kw- in monosyllabic verbs.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. it, there; ku class(XV)/ku class(XVII) subject concord
    Antonym: haku-
    Kutoa kunatokana na moyo.
    Giving comes from the heart.
    Kuna watu wengi nchini wanaotaka amani.
    There are many people in the country who want peace.
  2. verb-initial form of -ku- (there, ku class(XVII) object concord)
See also[edit]

Swazi[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. you; second-person singular object concord.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. Class 15 noun prefix; forms the infinitive of verbs.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. it; class 15 subject concord.
  2. it; class 15 object concord.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. it; class 17 subject concord.
  2. it; class 17 object concord.

Taos[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. (transitive) Second-person singular subject + third person duoplural object.

Tocharian A[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰew-. Cognates include Ancient Greek χέω (khéō), Sanskrit जुहोति (juhoti), Old Armenian ձեւ (jew), Latin fundō, fūtis and Old English ġēotan, guttas (English gut).

Verb[edit]

ku-

  1. to pour
  2. to offer a libation

Tocharian B[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰew-. Cognates include Ancient Greek χέω (khéō), Sanskrit जुहोति (juhoti), Old Armenian ձեւ (jew), Latin fundō, fūtis and Old English ġēotan, guttas (English gut).

Verb[edit]

ku-

  1. to pour
  2. to offer a libation

Tooro[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (before vowels) kw-

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. class 15 pronominal concord
    ku- + ‎-nu (this, these) → ‎kunu (this (class 15))
  2. it; class 15 subject concord
    ku- + ‎-kora (to do) → ‎kukora (it (class 15) does)
  3. positive imperative form of -ku- (it; class 15 object concord)
    ku- + ‎-ha (to give) → ‎kuha (give it (class 15))

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kaji, Shigeki (2007) A Rutooro Vocabulary[2] (in English), Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA), →ISBN, page 414

Xhosa[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. you; second-person singular object concord.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. it; class 15 subject concord.
  2. it; class 15 object concord.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. it; class 17 subject concord.
  2. it; class 17 object concord.

Ye'kwana[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. Allomorph of k- (first-person-dual-inclusive prefix) used for stems that begin with a consonant and have a first vowel u.

Inflection[edit]

Zulu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

kú-

  1. you; second-person singular object concord.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. Class 15 simple noun prefix.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

kú-

  1. it; class 15 subject concord.
  2. it; class 15 object concord.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ̀-.

Prefix[edit]

ku-

  1. Class 17 simple noun prefix.

Etymology 5[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *kʊ́-.

Prefix[edit]

kú-

  1. it; class 17 subject concord.
  2. it; class 17 object concord.

References[edit]