-o

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From many Spanish or Italian words that end in o.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. (humorous) Converts certain words to faux Italian or Spanish. Can be used with el for expressions such as el stinko.
    no problemo

Etymology 2[edit]

Perhaps from a special use of the interjection O, oh; and/or perhaps from o ‎(one), from Middle English o, oo, variant of a, on, oon, an ‎(one). More at one.

Suffix[edit]

-o ‎(plural -os or -oes)

  1. A diminutive suffix.
Usage notes[edit]
  • -o is generally applied to nouns, but sometimes adjectives, such as agro. It may also be applied to certain given names or surnames, often with elision and sometimes from an already shortened form, to create a nickname form — e.g., Jacko from Jack, Davo from Dave, Smitho from Smith.
Derived terms[edit]

The terms below are all Australianisms. Some are also found in other varieties of English.

See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Back-formation from typo.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. An error of a specific type.
Derived terms[edit]

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • From the masculine singular of the Romance languages, such as Italian (amico); perhaps also the neuter singular of Russian (окно ‎(okno))
  • Perhaps from the above (Italian quello, Russian то ‎(to))

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Nominal suffix. Most Esperanto nouns end in -o. (A few nouns end in -aŭ, and with some writers some feminine names end in -a.)
  2. -thing. (correlative object ending.)
    • kio ‎(what?, what)
    • tio ‎(that)
    • ĉio ‎(everything)
    • io ‎(something)
    • nenio ‎(nothing)

Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o ‎(front vowel harmony variant )

  1. Forms result or action nouns from verbs.
    huutaa ‎(shout) → huuto ‎(shout)
    keittää ‎(boil, cook) → keitto ‎(cooking; soup)
    nähdä ‎(see) → näkö ‎(vision) (ability to see)
  2. Forms variants from a few nominal roots.
    hilla ‎(cloudberry) → hillo ‎(jam)
    kanta ‎(base) → kanto ‎(tree stump)
    tasa ‎(level) → taso ‎(plane)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used deverbally especially with those verbs whose citation form ends with -aa or -ää. In stems with e or i, the suffix has its back vowel form, -o.

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -o (Kotus type 1/valo, no gradation)
nominative -o -ot
genitive -on -ojen
partitive -oa -oja
illative -oon -oihin
singular plural
nominative -o -ot
accusative nom.? -o -ot
gen. -on
genitive -on -ojen
partitive -oa -oja
inessive -ossa -oissa
elative -osta -oista
illative -oon -oihin
adessive -olla -oilla
ablative -olta -oilta
allative -olleˣ -oilleˣ
essive -ona -oina
translative -oksi -oiksi
instructive -oin
abessive -otta -oitta
comitative -oineen

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Corresponds to -ot, -au

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. added to a noun or an adjective after apocope, to create a familiar synonym

Derived terms[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Esperanto -o, from Romance languages.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Nominal suffix. All Ido nouns end in -o.

Italian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Used with a stem to form the first-person singular present of regular are and ere verbs and those -ire verbs that do not take -isc-

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page as described here.

Suffix[edit]

 m ‎(genitive -ōnis); third declension

  1. suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns
    combibō ‎(root: combib-) + combibō
    incubō ‎(root: incub-) + incubō
  2. suffixed to nouns, forms cognomina and, in post-Classical Latin, nicknames and equivalent designations
    Brūn + Brūnō
    cicer + Cicerō
Declension[edit]
singulare tantum declension in cognomina

Third declension.

Number Singular Plural
nominative -ōnēs
genitive -ōnis -ōnum
dative -ōnī -ōnibus
accusative -ōnem -ōnēs
ablative -ōne -ōnibus
vocative -ōnēs
Synonyms[edit]
  • (suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns): -a¹
Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Developing from nouns’ ablatives of manner.

Suffix[edit]

‎(comparative -ius, superlative -issimō)

  1. forms adverbs
    prīmus + prīmō
    tūtus + tūtō
Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page as described here.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

present active , present infinitive -āre, perfect active -āvī, supine -ātum

  1. suffixed to nouns — originally a-stem nouns, but later nouns with other stems — forms regular first-conjugation verbs
    cūra + cūrō
    dōnum + dōnō
    laus ‎(stem: laud-) + laudō
    multa + multō
  2. suffixed to third-conjugation verbs in composition, forms regular first-conjugation verbs
    com- + pellō ‎(pres. act. inf.: pellere) + compellō ‎(pres. act. inf.: compellāre)
    prō- + flīgō ‎(pres. act. inf.: flīgere) + prōflīgō ‎(pres. act. inf.: prōflīgāre)
Conjugation[edit]
   Conjugation of -o (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -ās -at -āmus -ātis -ant
imperfect -ābam -ābās -ābat -ābāmus -ābātis -ābant
future -ābō -ābis -ābit -ābimus -ābitis -ābunt
perfect -āvī -āvistī -āvit -āvimus -āvistis -āvērunt, -āvēre
pluperfect -āveram -āverās -āverat -āverāmus -āverātis -āverant
future perfect -āverō -āveris -āverit -āverimus -āveritis -āverint
passive present -or -āris, -āre -ātur -āmur -āminī -antur
imperfect -ābar -ābāris, -ābāre -ābātur -ābāmur -ābāminī -ābantur
future -ābor -āberis, -ābere -ābitur -ābimur -ābiminī -ābuntur
perfect -ātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -ātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -ātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -em -ēs -et -ēmus -ētis -ent
imperfect -ārem -ārēs -āret -ārēmus -ārētis -ārent
perfect -āverim -āverīs -āverit -āverīmus -āverītis -āverint
pluperfect -āvissem -āvissēs -āvisset -āvissēmus -āvissētis -āvissent
passive present -er -ēris, -ēre -ētur -ēmur -ēminī -entur
imperfect -ārer -ārēris, -ārēre -ārētur -ārēmur -ārēminī -ārentur
perfect -ātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -ātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -āte
future -ātō -ātō -ātōte -antō
passive present -āre -āminī
future -ātor -ātor -antor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -āre -āvisse -ātūrus esse -ārī -ātus esse -ātum īrī
participles -āns -ātūrus -ātus -andus
Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Regularly declined forms of -us.

Suffix[edit]

  1. dative masculine singular of -us
  2. dative neuter singular of -us
  3. ablative masculine singular of -us
  4. ablative neuter singular of -us

See also[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. -ly (used to turn an adjective into an adverb of manner)

Derived terms[edit]


Synonyms[edit]


Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ā; compare Latvian -a, Proto-Slavic *-a ‎(id). From the Proto-Indo-European thematic masculine ablative ending *-ōd, with regular Balto-Slavic loss of final d. Compare Sanskrit -आत् ‎(-āt), Latin, and Ancient Greek ὄπ-ω ‎(óp-ō, whence). In Balto-Slavic, the genitive merged with the ablative. The original genitive was retained, however, in West Baltic; compare Old Prussian -as, presumably from Proto-Indo-European *-os; compare Hittite 𒀸 ‎(-as).

Suffix[edit]

  1. Used to form genitive singulars of masculine a-stem nouns.
  2. Used to form genitive singulars of masculine a-stem adjectives.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Used to form third person present tense forms in third declension verbs.
  2. Used to form third person past tense forms in first declension verbs.

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

  1. An illative suffix.
    namasnamo
Synonyms[edit]

Old Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle Dutch: -e

Old High German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle High German: -e

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate to Old English -a, in ǣta ‎(eater), Gothic -𐌰 ‎(-a), in 𐌽𐌿𐍄𐌰 ‎(nuta, fisher). In some cases, the root appears in the zero-grade as in boto (from biotan).

Suffix[edit]

-o m

  1. used to form masculine agents from verbs
    geban ‎(to give) → gëbo ‎(giver)
    sprehhan ‎(to speak) → sprëhho ‎(speaker)
    biotan ‎(to offer, send, command) → boto ‎(messenger)
    ziohan ‎(to pull, lead) → herizogo ‎(army leader)
    sagēn ‎(to say) → fora-sago ‎(prophet)
Declension[edit]

Most nouns with this suffix follow the n-declension, like hano ‎(cock), namo ‎(name), gomo ‎(man).

Descendants[edit]
  • German: -e
  • Middle High German: -e

In Middle High German, the suffix is replaced by -er (whence German -er), as in Middle High German gëber instead of Old High German gëbo. Only a few German words still have a final -e that results from Old High German -o.


Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate to Old English -a, in ǣta ‎(eater), Gothic -𐌰 ‎(-a), in 𐌽𐌿𐍄𐌰 ‎(nuta, fisher).

Suffix[edit]

-o m

  1. used to form masculine agents from verbs and nouns
    gevan ‎(to give) → gevo ‎(giver)
    beddi ‎(bed) → gibeddio ‎(bedfellow)
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle Low German: -e

Portuguese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. forms the 1st-person singular present indicative of verbs

Spanish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. suffix indicating the first-person singular present indicative of verbs

Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. adverb ending
  2. -wise (in the matter of; with regard to)

Derived terms[edit]