-o

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from a special use of the interjection O, oh; and/or perhaps from o ‎(one), from Middle English o, oo, variant of a, on, oon, an ‎(one). More at one.

Suffix[edit]

-o ‎(plural -os or -oes)

  1. A colloquializing suffix.
  2. A type of person (colloquial).
Usage notes[edit]

-o generally does not change the meaning of the word, only making it more colloquial, often with elision (like clipping, but with a suffix), and is primarily applied to nouns, as in kiddo ‎(kid) or preso ‎(presentation). It is sometimes applied to adjectives, such as agro. It may also be applied to certain given names or surnames, often with elision and sometimes from an already shortened form, to create a nickname form — e.g., Jacko from Jack, Davo from Dave, Smitho from Smith.

Less commonly, it results in a change in meaning, primarily meaning “a person with a characteristic”, and is generally applied to adjectives, resulting in a noun, as is weirdo ‎(weird person). More rarely it can also be applied to a noun, as in wino ‎(wine-drinking alcoholic).

Derived terms[edit]

Type of person

Australianisms; some are also found in other varieties of English

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From many Spanish or Italian words that end in o.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. (humorous) Converts certain words to faux Italian or Spanish. Can be used with el for expressions such as el stinko.
    no problemo
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Back-formation from typo.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. An error of a specific type.
Derived terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]



Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • From the masculine singular of the Romance languages, such as Italian (amico); perhaps also the neuter singular of Russian (окно ‎(okno))
  • Perhaps from the above (Italian quello, Russian то ‎(to))

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Nominal suffix. Most Esperanto nouns end in -o. (A few nouns end in -aŭ, and with some writers some feminine names end in -a.)
  2. -thing. (correlative object ending.)
    • kio ‎(what?, what)
    • tio ‎(that)
    • ĉio ‎(everything)
    • io ‎(something)
    • nenio ‎(nothing)

Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o ‎(front vowel harmony variant )

  1. Forms result or action nouns from verbs.
    huutaa ‎(shout) → huuto ‎(shout)
    keittää ‎(boil, cook) → keitto ‎(cooking; soup)
    nähdä ‎(see) → näkö ‎(vision) (ability to see)
  2. Forms variants from a few nominal roots.
    hilla ‎(cloudberry) → hillo ‎(jam)
    kanta ‎(base) → kanto ‎(tree stump)
    tasa ‎(level) → taso ‎(plane)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used deverbally especially with those verbs whose citation form ends with -aa or -ää. In stems with e or i, the suffix has its back vowel form, -o.

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -o (Kotus type 1/valo, no gradation)
nominative -o -ot
genitive -on -ojen
partitive -oa -oja
illative -oon -oihin
singular plural
nominative -o -ot
accusative nom. -o -ot
gen. -on
genitive -on -ojen
partitive -oa -oja
inessive -ossa -oissa
elative -osta -oista
illative -oon -oihin
adessive -olla -oilla
ablative -olta -oilta
allative -olle -oille
essive -ona -oina
translative -oksi -oiksi
instructive -oin
abessive -otta -oitta
comitative -oineen

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Corresponds to -ot, -au

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. added to a noun or an adjective after apocope, to create a familiar synonym

Derived terms[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Esperanto -o, from Romance languages.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Nominal suffix. All Ido nouns end in -o.

Italian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Used with a stem to form the first-person singular present of regular are and ere verbs and those -ire verbs that do not take -isc-

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.

Suffix[edit]

 m ‎(genitive -ōnis); third declension

  1. suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns
    combibō ‎(root: combib-) + combibō
    incubō ‎(root: incub-) + incubō
  2. suffixed to nouns, forms cognomina and, in post-Classical Latin, nicknames and equivalent designations
    Brūn + Brūnō
    cicer + Cicerō
Declension[edit]
singulare tantum declension in cognomina

Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative -ōnēs
genitive -ōnis -ōnum
dative -ōnī -ōnibus
accusative -ōnem -ōnēs
ablative -ōne -ōnibus
vocative -ōnēs
Synonyms[edit]
  • (suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns): -a¹
Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Developing from nouns’ ablatives of manner.

Suffix[edit]

‎(comparative -ius, superlative -issimō)

  1. forms adverbs
    prīmus + prīmō
    tūtus + tūtō
Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

present active , present infinitive -āre, perfect active -āvī, supine -ātum

  1. suffixed to nouns — originally a-stem nouns, but later nouns with other stems — forms regular first-conjugation verbs
    cūra + cūrō
    dōnum + dōnō
    laus ‎(stem: laud-) + laudō
    multa + multō
  2. suffixed to third-conjugation verbs in composition, forms regular first-conjugation verbs
    com- + pellō ‎(pres. act. inf.: pellere) + compellō ‎(pres. act. inf.: compellāre)
    prō- + flīgō ‎(pres. act. inf.: flīgere) + prōflīgō ‎(pres. act. inf.: prōflīgāre)
Conjugation[edit]
   Conjugation of -o (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -ās -at -āmus -ātis -ant
imperfect -ābam -ābās -ābat -ābāmus -ābātis -ābant
future -ābō -ābis -ābit -ābimus -ābitis -ābunt
perfect -āvī -āvistī -āvit -āvimus -āvistis -āvērunt, -āvēre
pluperfect -āveram -āverās -āverat -āverāmus -āverātis -āverant
future perfect -āverō -āveris -āverit -āverimus -āveritis -āverint
passive present -or -āris, -āre -ātur -āmur -āminī -antur
imperfect -ābar -ābāris, -ābāre -ābātur -ābāmur -ābāminī -ābantur
future -ābor -āberis, -ābere -ābitur -ābimur -ābiminī -ābuntur
perfect -ātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -ātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -ātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -em -ēs -et -ēmus -ētis -ent
imperfect -ārem -ārēs -āret -ārēmus -ārētis -ārent
perfect -āverim -āverīs -āverit -āverīmus -āverītis -āverint
pluperfect -āvissem -āvissēs -āvisset -āvissēmus -āvissētis -āvissent
passive present -er -ēris, -ēre -ētur -ēmur -ēminī -entur
imperfect -ārer -ārēris, -ārēre -ārētur -ārēmur -ārēminī -ārentur
perfect -ātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -ātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -āte
future -ātō -ātō -ātōte -antō
passive present -āre -āminī
future -ātor -ātor -antor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -āre -āvisse -ātūrus esse -ārī -ātus esse -ātum īrī
participles -āns -ātūrus -ātus -andus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
-āre -andī -andō -andum -ātum -ātū
Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Regularly declined forms of -us.

Suffix[edit]

  1. dative masculine singular of -us
  2. dative neuter singular of -us
  3. ablative masculine singular of -us
  4. ablative neuter singular of -us

See also[edit]


Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ā; compare Latvian -a, Proto-Slavic *-a ‎(id). From the Proto-Indo-European thematic masculine ablative ending *-ōd, with regular Balto-Slavic loss of final d. Compare Sanskrit -आत् ‎(-āt), Latin, and Ancient Greek ὄπ-ω ‎(óp-ō, whence). In Balto-Slavic, the genitive merged with the ablative. The original genitive was retained, however, in West Baltic; compare Old Prussian -as, presumably from Proto-Indo-European *-os; compare Hittite 𒀸 ‎(-as).

Suffix[edit]

  1. Used to form genitive singulars of masculine a-stem nouns.
  2. Used to form genitive singulars of masculine a-stem adjectives.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Used to form third person present tense forms in third declension verbs.
  2. Used to form third person past tense forms in first declension verbs.

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

  1. An illative suffix.
    namasnamo
Synonyms[edit]

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. -ly (used to turn an adjective into an adverb of manner)

Derived terms[edit]


Synonyms[edit]


Old Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle Dutch: -e

Old High German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle High German: -e

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate to Old English -a, in ǣta ‎(eater), Gothic -𐌰 ‎(-a), in 𐌽𐌿𐍄𐌰 ‎(nuta, fisher). In some cases, the root appears in the zero-grade as in boto (from biotan).

Suffix[edit]

-o m

  1. used to form masculine agents from verbs
    geban ‎(to give) → gëbo ‎(giver)
    sprehhan ‎(to speak) → sprëhho ‎(speaker)
    biotan ‎(to offer, send, command) → boto ‎(messenger)
    ziohan ‎(to pull, lead) → herizogo ‎(army leader)
    sagēn ‎(to say) → fora-sago ‎(prophet)
Declension[edit]

Most nouns with this suffix follow the n-declension, like hano ‎(cock), namo ‎(name), gomo ‎(man).

Descendants[edit]
  • German: -e
  • Middle High German: -e

In Middle High German, the suffix is replaced by -er (whence German -er), as in Middle High German gëber instead of Old High German gëbo. Only a few German words still have a final -e that results from Old High German -o.


Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate to Old English -a, in ǣta ‎(eater), Gothic -𐌰 ‎(-a), in 𐌽𐌿𐍄𐌰 ‎(nuta, fisher).

Suffix[edit]

-o m

  1. used to form masculine agents from verbs and nouns
    gevan ‎(to give) → gevo ‎(giver)
    beddi ‎(bed) → gibeddio ‎(bedfellow)
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle Low German: -e

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese -o, from Latin -um.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. forms masculine singular nouns and adjectives

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese -o, from Latin .

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. forms the first-person singular present indicative of verbs

Spanish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. suffix indicating the first-person singular present indicative of verbs

Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. adverb ending
  2. -wise (in the matter of; with regard to)

Derived terms[edit]