-o

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from a special use of the interjection O, oh; and/or perhaps from o (one), from Middle English o, oo, variant of a, on, oon, an (one). See one and -y.

Suffix[edit]

-o (plural -os or -oes)

  1. A colloquializing suffix, typically appended to names, abbreviations of long words, or substantive uses of adjectives.
    kid + ‎-o → ‎kiddo
    ugly + ‎-o → ‎uggo
    • 1991, Stephen Fry, chapter III, in The Liar, London: William Heinemann, →ISBN, page 26:
      Adrian thought it worth while to try out his new slang. ‘I say, you fellows, here's a rum go. Old Biffo was jolly odd this morning. He gave me a lot of pi-jaw about slacking and then invited me to tea. No rotting! He did really.’
Usage notes[edit]

-o generally does not change the meaning of the word or name but only makes it more colloquial, as with cheapo and Jacko. It is often appended to clipped or elided forms of longer words, as with ambo and parmo. Occasionally, the terminal consonant of the clipped form is doubled for clarity of meaning or pronunciation, as with uggo and doggo. It sometimes does change the meaning of words, usually by being applied to adjectives to indicate a person with a pronounced trait, as with weirdo (weird person), or to nouns used metonymously to indicate a person with a pronounced connection to the other object, as with wino (poor or vagrant alcoholic). Especially in American English, some uses of this suffix are understood as dated slang, as with bucko and neato. The suffix is most frequently and widely encountered in Australian English, which has additional uses (such as rego for registration and nasho for national service) that are never or only extremely rarely encountered in other dialects.

Its meaning is very similar to some uses of -y and its use is particularly common where use of -y might cause misunderstanding, as with randy and rando, journey and journo, whiny and wino.

Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From many Spanish or Italian words that end in o. This ending in such Spanish or Italian words generally derives from -um, the accusative singular inflectional ending for masculine and neuter nouns in Latin.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. (humorous) Converts certain words to faux Italian or Spanish. Can be used with Spanish el for expressions such as el stinko.
    no problemo
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Back-formation from typo.

Suffix[edit]

-o (plural -os)

  1. Added to verb stems to create a noun describing an error relating to the action described by the verb.
Derived terms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Afar[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

  1. Used to form feminine nouns from verbs.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[1], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis)

Albanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

  1. Creates a second-person singular active imperative verb form from a non-verb.
    • adverb/preposition: afër (close, nearby) (drop of ë) + -oafro (bring closer!)
    • adverb: baraz (equal) + -obarazo (equalize!)
    • adverb/preposition: krahas (arm in arm, side by side) + -okrahaso (compare!)
    • adjective/adverb: pastër (clean) (drop of ë) + -opastro (cleanse!)
    • noun: zhurmë (drop of ë) + -ozhurmo (make a noise, scream!)

Etymology 2[edit]

Particle[edit]

-o

  1. Alternative form of o

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • From the masculine singular of the Romance languages, such as Italian (amico); perhaps also the neuter singular of Russian (окно (okno))
  • Perhaps from the above (Italian quello, Russian то (to))

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
  • IPA(key): /o/

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Nominal suffix. Most Esperanto nouns end in -o. (A few nouns end in -aŭ, and with some writers some feminine names end in -a.)
  2. -thing. (correlative object ending.)
    • kio (what?, what)
    • tio (that)
    • ĉio (everything)
    • io (something)
    • nenio (nothing)

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Conflated:

Suffix[edit]

-o (front vowel harmony variant )

  1. Forms result or action nouns from verbs.
    huutaa (shout) + ‎-o → ‎huuto (shout)
    keittää (boil, cook) + ‎-o → ‎keitto (cooking; soup)
    nähdä (see) + ‎-o → ‎näkö (vision) (ability to see)
  2. Forms variants or diminutives from a few nominal roots.
    hilla (cloudberry) + ‎-o → ‎hillo (jam)
    kanta (base) + ‎-o → ‎kanto (tree stump)
    tasa (level) + ‎-o → ‎taso (plane)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used deverbally especially with those verbs whose citation form ends with -aa or -ää. In stems with e or i, the suffix has its back vowel form, -o.

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -o (Kotus type 1/valo, no gradation)
nominative -o -ot
genitive -on -ojen
partitive -oa -oja
illative -oon -oihin
singular plural
nominative -o -ot
accusative nom. -o -ot
gen. -on
genitive -on -ojen
partitive -oa -oja
inessive -ossa -oissa
elative -osta -oista
illative -oon -oihin
adessive -olla -oilla
ablative -olta -oilta
allative -olle -oille
essive -ona -oina
translative -oksi -oiksi
instructive -oin
abessive -otta -oitta
comitative -oineen
Possessive forms of -o (type valo)
possessor singular plural
1st person -oni -omme
2nd person -osi -onne
3rd person -onsa

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Corresponds to -ot, -(e)au

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. added to a noun or an adjective after apocope, to create a familiar synonym

Derived terms[edit]


Garo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. (inflectional suffix) forms the locative case

Synonyms[edit]

  • -no (forms locative)

See also[edit]

  • -na (forms dative)
  • -ko (forms accusative)
  • -chi (forms instrumental)
  • -ni (forms genitive)

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-o

  1. Romanization of -𐍉

Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Esperanto -o, from Romance languages.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Nominal suffix. All Ido nouns end in -o.

Italian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin -um, accusative of -us.

Suffix[edit]

-o (pl. -i , feminine sg. -a, feminine pl. -e)

  1. Used with a stem to form a masculine singular noun

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin .

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Used with a stem to form the first-person singular present of regular are and ere verbs and those -ire verbs that do not take -isc-

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

See Proto-Indo-European *-h₃onh₂- (with nominative ō made common to all cases).

Suffix[edit]

 m (genitive -ōnis); third declension

  1. forms masculine agent nouns, positive and especially negative nicknames and other designations, especially in colloquial language.
    combibere (to drink together)combibō (drinking buddy)
    vāpulāre (to get beaten)vāpulō (who gets frequently flogged)
    ?cōci-cōciō (broker)
    centuria (century)centuriō (centurion)
    mūlus (mule)mūliō (muleteer)
    Ancient Greek μωρός (mōrós, dull, sluggish)mōriō (idiot)
  2. also forms names, especially cognomina.
    aquila (eagle)Aquilō (the North wind)
    incubāre (to lie on top)Incubō (a spirit that watches over buried treasures)
    cūria (curia)Cūriō
    cicer (chickpea)Cicerō
    vārus (bow-legged)Varrō
    catus (clever, shrewd)Catō
    conger (sea-eel)Congriō (name of a cook in Plautus)
Declension[edit]

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -ōnēs
Genitive -ōnis -ōnum
Dative -ōnī -ōnibus
Accusative -ōnem -ōnēs
Ablative -ōne -ōnibus
Vocative -ōnēs
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • French: -on
    • English: -oon
  • Italian: -one
  • Portuguese: -ão
  • Romanian: -oi
  • Sicilian: -uni, -una
  • Spanish: -ón

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Italic *-ōd, an ablative suffix, derived from Proto-Indo-European *-éad.

Suffix[edit]

(comparative -ius, superlative -issimō)

  1. forms adverbs
    prīmus + prīmō
    tūtus + tūtō
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Italic *-āō or *-aēō, from the following sources:

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(present infinitive -āre, perfect active -āvī, supine -ātum); first conjugation

  1. suffixed to nouns or adjectives — originally a-stem nouns, but later nouns with other stems — forms regular first-conjugation verbs
    cūra + cūrō
    dōnum + dōnō
    laus (stem: laud-) + laudō
    multa + multō
    nūndinae + -ornūndinor (deponent)
  2. suffixed to third-conjugation verbs in composition, forms regular first-conjugation verbs
    com- + pellō (pres. act. inf.: pellere) + compellō (pres. act. inf.: compellāre)
    prō- + flīgō (pres. act. inf.: flīgere) + prōflīgō (pres. act. inf.: prōflīgāre)
Conjugation[edit]
   Conjugation of (first conjugation, verbs with the perfect infix -av-)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -ās -at -āmus -ātis -ant
imperfect -ābam -ābās -ābat -ābāmus -ābātis -ābant
future -ābō -ābis -ābit -ābimus -ābitis -ābunt
perfect -āvī -āvistī,
-āstī3
-āvit,
-āt3
-āvimus,
-āmus3
-āvistis,
-āstis3
-āvērunt,
-āvēre,
-ārunt3
pluperfect -āveram,
-āram3
-āverās,
-ārās3
-āverat,
-ārat3
-āverāmus,
-ārāmus3
-āverātis,
-ārātis3
-āverant,
-ārant3
future perfect -āverō,
-ārō3
-āveris,
-āris3
-āverit,
-ārit3
-āverimus,
-ārimus3
-āveritis,
-āritis3
-āverint,
-ārint3
sigmatic future1 -āssō -āssis -āssit -āssimus -āssitis -āssint
passive present -or -āris,
-āre
-ātur -āmur -āminī -antur
imperfect -ābar -ābāris,
-ābāre
-ābātur -ābāmur -ābāminī -ābantur
future -ābor -āberis,
-ābere
-ābitur -ābimur -ābiminī -ābuntur
perfect -ātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -ātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -ātus + future active indicative of sum
sigmatic future1 -āssor -āsseris -āssitur
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -em -ēs -et -ēmus -ētis -ent
imperfect -ārem -ārēs -āret -ārēmus -ārētis -ārent
perfect -āverim,
-ārim3
-āverīs,
-ārīs3
-āverit,
-ārit3
-āverīmus,
-ārīmus3
-āverītis,
-ārītis3
-āverint,
-ārint3
pluperfect -āvissem,
-āssem3
-āvissēs,
-āssēs3
-āvisset,
-āsset3
-āvissēmus,
-āssēmus3
-āvissētis,
-āssētis3
-āvissent,
-āssent3
sigmatic aorist1 -āssim -āssīs -āssīt -āssīmus -āssītis -āssint
passive present -er -ēris,
-ēre
-ētur -ēmur -ēminī -entur
imperfect -ārer -ārēris,
-ārēre
-ārētur -ārēmur -ārēminī -ārentur
perfect -ātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -ātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -āte
future -ātō -ātō -ātōte -antō
passive present -āre -āminī
future -ātor -ātor -antor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -āre -āvisse,
-āsse3
-ātūrum esse -ārī,
-ārier2
-ātum esse -ātum īrī
participles -āns -ātūrus -ātus -andus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
-andī -andō -andum -andō -ātum -ātū
   Conjugation of (first conjugation, verbs with the perfect infix -u-)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -ās -at -āmus -ātis -ant
imperfect -ābam -ābās -ābat -ābāmus -ābātis -ābant
future -ābō -ābis -ābit -ābimus -ābitis -ābunt
perfect -uī -uistī -uit -uimus -uistis -uērunt,
-uēre
pluperfect -ueram -uerās -uerat -uerāmus -uerātis -uerant
future perfect -uerō -ueris -uerit -uerimus -ueritis -uerint
sigmatic future1 -āssō -āssis -āssit -āssimus -āssitis -āssint
passive present -or -āris,
-āre
-ātur -āmur -āminī -antur
imperfect -ābar -ābāris,
-ābāre
-ābātur -ābāmur -ābāminī -ābantur
future -ābor -āberis,
-ābere
-ābitur -ābimur -ābiminī -ābuntur
perfect -ātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -ātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -ātus + future active indicative of sum
sigmatic future1 -āssor -āsseris -āssitur
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -em -ēs -et -ēmus -ētis -ent
imperfect -ārem -ārēs -āret -ārēmus -ārētis -ārent
perfect -uerim -uerīs -uerit -uerīmus -uerītis -uerint
pluperfect -uissem -uissēs -uisset -uissēmus -uissētis -uissent
sigmatic aorist1 -āssim -āssīs -āssīt -āssīmus -āssītis -āssint
passive present -er -ēris,
-ēre
-ētur -ēmur -ēminī -entur
imperfect -ārer -ārēris,
-ārēre
-ārētur -ārēmur -ārēminī -ārentur
perfect -ātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -ātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -āte
future -ātō -ātō -ātōte -antō
passive present -āre -āminī
future -ātor -ātor -antor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -āre -uisse -ātūrum esse -ārī,
-ārier2
-ātum esse -ātum īrī
participles -āns -ātūrus -ātus -andus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
-andī -andō -andum -andō -ātum -ātū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to"). It is also attested as having a rare sigmatic future passive indicative form ("will have been").
2The present passive infinitive in -ier is a rare poetic form which is attested.
3At least one rare poetic syncopated perfect form is attested.

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(present infinitive -ere, perfect active , supine -um); third conjugation

  1. forms regular third-conjugation verbs
Conjugation[edit]
   Conjugation of (third conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -is -it -imus -itis -unt
imperfect -ēbam -ēbās -ēbat -ēbāmus -ēbātis -ēbant
future -am -ēs -et -ēmus -ētis -ent
perfect -istī -it -imus -istis -ērunt,
-ēre
pluperfect -eram -erās -erat -erāmus -erātis -erant
future perfect -erō -eris -erit -erimus -eritis -erint
sigmatic future1 -is -it -imus -itis -int
passive present -or -eris,
-ere
-itur -imur -iminī -untur
imperfect -ēbar -ēbāris,
-ēbāre
-ēbātur -ēbāmur -ēbāminī -ēbantur
future -ar -ēris,
-ēre
-ētur -ēmur -ēminī -entur
perfect -us + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -us + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -us + future active indicative of sum
sigmatic future1 -or -eris -itur
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -am -ās -at -āmus -ātis -ant
imperfect -erem -erēs -eret -erēmus -erētis -erent
perfect -erim -erīs -erit -erīmus -erītis -erint
pluperfect -issem -issēs -isset -issēmus -issētis -issent
sigmatic aorist1 -im -īs -īt -īmus -ītis -int
passive present -ar -āris,
-āre
-ātur -āmur -āminī -antur
imperfect -erer -erēris,
-erēre
-erētur -erēmur -erēminī -erentur
perfect -us + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -us + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -e -ite
future -itō -itō -itōte -untō
passive present -ere -iminī
future -itor -itor -untor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -ere -isse -ūrum esse -um esse -um īrī
participles -ēns -ūrus -us -endus,
-undus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
-endī -endō -endum -endō -um

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to"). It is also attested as having a rare sigmatic future passive indicative form ("will have been").

Etymology 5[edit]

From Old Latin -ōi, from Proto-Italic *-ōi, from Proto-Indo-European *-oey.

Suffix[edit]

  1. dative/ablative masculine/neuter singular of -us

See also[edit]


Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ā; compare Latvian -a, Proto-Slavic *-a (id). From the Proto-Indo-European thematic masculine ablative ending *-ōd, with regular Balto-Slavic loss of final d. Compare Sanskrit -आत् (-āt), Latin and Ancient Greek ὄπ-ω (óp-ō, whence). In Balto-Slavic, the genitive merged with the ablative. The original genitive was retained, however, in West Baltic; compare Old Prussian -as, presumably from Proto-Indo-European *-os; compare Hittite 𒀸 (-as).

Suffix[edit]

  1. Used to form genitive singulars of masculine a-stem nouns.
  2. Used to form genitive singulars of masculine a-stem adjectives.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Used to form third person present tense forms in third declension verbs.
  2. Used to form third person past tense forms in first declension verbs.

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

  1. An illative suffix.
    namas + ‎-o → ‎namo
Synonyms[edit]

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. -ly (used to turn an adjective into an adverb of manner)

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Used to make plural indefinite and definite forms for some neuter nouns
  2. (non-standard since 1917) Used to make singular definite form for some weak feminine nouns
  3. (archaic)(nonstandard) Used to mark plural form for strong verbs in past tense

Old Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.

Derived terms[edit]

Category Old Dutch terms suffixed with -o not found

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle Dutch: -e

Old High German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle High German: -e

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate to Old English -a, in ǣta (eater), Old Norse -i, Gothic -𐌰 (-a), in 𐌽𐌿𐍄𐌰 (nuta, fisher). In some cases, the root appears in the zero-grade as in boto (from biotan).

Suffix[edit]

-o m

  1. used to form masculine agents from verbs
    geban (to give) + ‎-o → ‎gëbo (giver)
    sprehhan (to speak) + ‎-o → ‎sprëhho (speaker)
    biotan (to offer, send, command) + ‎-o → ‎boto (messenger)
    ziohan (to pull, lead) + ‎-o → ‎herizogo (army leader)
    sagēn (to say) + ‎-o → ‎fora-sago (prophet)
Declension[edit]

Most nouns with this suffix follow the n-declension, like hano (cock), namo (name), gomo (man).

Descendants[edit]
  • Middle High German: -e
    • German: -e

In Middle High German, the suffix is replaced by -er (whence German -er), as in Middle High German gëber instead of Old High German gëbo. Only a few German words still have a final -e that results from Old High German -o.


Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate to Old English -a, in ǣta (eater), Gothic -𐌰 (-a), in 𐌽𐌿𐍄𐌰 (nuta, fisher).

Suffix[edit]

-o m

  1. used to form masculine agents from verbs and nouns
    gevan (to give) + ‎-o → ‎gevo (giver)
    beddi (bed) + ‎-o → ‎gibeddio (bedfellow)
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle Low German: -e

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives
    beztroski + ‎-o → ‎beztrosko
  2. Forms diminutives, softening the previous consonant
    dziad + ‎-o → ‎dziadzio

See also[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -o in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • -o in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese -o, from Latin -um.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. forms masculine singular nouns and adjectives

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese -o, from Latin .

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. forms the first-person singular present indicative of verbs

Romani[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms the nominative singular of vocalic oikoclitic masculine nouns
  2. Forms the nominative masculine singular of vocalic oikoclitic adjectives
  3. Attaches to the perfective stem to form the third-person singular masculine past tense of intransitive verbs

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Vocative singular (feminine)
    mamă (mother) + ‎-o → ‎mamo
    focă (seal) + ‎-o → ‎foco

Usage notes[edit]

This form of the vocative is informal, especially when referring to a person. The nominative/accusative ending is preferred.

Related terms[edit]

  • -e (vocative used for masculine and neuter adjectives or nouns)

Spanish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin -um, accusative of -us.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Used with a stem to form a masculine singular noun
    azafata (female flight-attendant) + ‎-o → ‎azafato (male flight-attendant)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin .

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. suffix indicating the first-person singular present indicative of verbs

Swedish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ʊ/
  • When combined the stress is always on the first syllable.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. (colloquial) Combines with an (often clipped) word to create a noun referring to a person with a related property. Gives a familiar and to some extent diminutive nuance.
    fylla (drunkenness) + ‎-o → ‎fyllo (drunkard)
    fet (fat) + ‎-o → ‎fetto (a fatty)
    snygg (handsome) + ‎-o → ‎snyggo (handsome (noun))
    puckad (stupid) + ‎-o → ‎pucko (a stupid person)
    lycklig (lucky, fortunate) + ‎-o → ‎lyllo (a fortunate person)

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Old Swedish -u, -o, from Old Norse -u.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. (archaic) In the indicative mood, conjugates verbs into the plural number.
    de äro
    they are
    vi sutto
    we sat
See also[edit]

Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. adverb ending
  2. -wise (in the matter of; with regard to)

Derived terms[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. used to form pet names
    Dai + ‎-o → ‎Deio
    Gwen + ‎-o → ‎Gwenno
    Iorwerth + ‎-o → ‎Iolo

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the third-person singular present subjunctive

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle Welsh -aw, from Proto-Brythonic *-ọβ̃.

Suffix[edit]

-o

  1. Forms verbnouns from verb stems.
    Synonyms: -i, -u
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is mostly used for verbs where the stem ends in the consonant i (though for some such verbs, such as cynnig, the verbnoun is given by dropping the i from the stem) or the vowel in the last syllable is i, u, eu, or wy.[1]

Related terms[edit]
  • -io (Forms verbnouns from verbs and other parts of speech)
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, § 202 iv