-io

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Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ia in country names.

Suffix[edit]

-io

  1. a country named after the root, whether that is a people, person, city, or river
    japano(a Japanese person) + ‎-io → ‎Japanio(Japan)
    Kolumbo(Columbus) + ‎-io → ‎Kolumbio(Columbia)
    Romo(Rome) + ‎-io → ‎Romio(the Roman Empire)
    Niĝero(the Niger River) + ‎-io → ‎Niĝerio(Nigeria)
    Esperanto(the Esperanto language) + ‎-io → ‎Esperantio(a notional Esperanto-speaking land)
  2. a science named after its practitioner
    astronomo(astronomer) + ‎-io → ‎astronomio(astronomy)
    biologo(biologist) + ‎-io → ‎biologio(biology)
    kirurgo(surgeon) + ‎-io → ‎kirurgio(surgery (branch of medicine))

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]



Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-io (front vowel harmony variant -iö)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs or verbal stems.
    itää(to sprout) + ‎-io → ‎itiö(spore (of e.g. mushroom, moss))
    valita(to choose) + ‎-io → ‎valio(elite, select)
  2. Forms nouns from other nouns, adjectives, numbers or their stems.
    yksi(one) + ‎-io → ‎yksiö(a one-room apartment)
    kolme(three) + ‎-io → ‎kolmio(a triangle; a yield sign)
    neljä(four) + ‎-io → ‎neliö(a square); shorter form for a square meter

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -io (Kotus type 3/valtio, no gradation)
nominative -io -iot
genitive -ion -ioiden
-ioitten
partitive -iota -ioita
illative -ioon -ioihin
singular plural
nominative -io -iot
accusative nom. -io -iot
gen. -ion
genitive -ion -ioiden
-ioitten
partitive -iota -ioita
inessive -iossa -ioissa
elative -iosta -ioista
illative -ioon -ioihin
adessive -iolla -ioilla
ablative -iolta -ioilta
allative -iolle -ioille
essive -iona -ioina
translative -ioksi -ioiksi
instructive -ioin
abessive -iotta -ioitta
comitative -ioineen

Derived terms[edit]



Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowing from English -ia, French -ie, Italian -ia, Russian -ия(-ija), Spanish -ia, ultimately from Latin -ia, from Ancient Greek -ία(-ía).

Suffix[edit]

-io

  1. suffix denoting the country, region, domain, territory or province dependent upon the authority of a person
    duko(duke; duchess) + ‎-io → ‎dukio(duchy)
    episkopo(bishop) + ‎-io → ‎episkopio(bishopric, diocese, episcopate)
    paroko(parish priest, rector) + ‎-io → ‎parokio(parish)
    rejo(sovereign, ruler, king, queen, monarch) + ‎-io → ‎rejio(kingdom)

Usage notes[edit]

A common but false misconception is that countries that end with -ia in Ido, for example Albania, uses this suffix when in fact it's part of the root itself. Though, -io at times can help shape country names to fit; Mexikia uses the extra i so not to be confused with Mexiko(Mexico City) at the same time resembling other country names.

Derived terms[edit]



Italian[edit]

Pronunciation 1[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈi.o/, [ˈiːo]
  • Stress: -ìo

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown. Perhaps from Latin -ērium.

Suffix[edit]

-io m (plural -ii)

  1. Used to derive adjectives from verbs with durative, intensive or frequentative connotation; -le
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -īvus.

Suffix[edit]

-io m (plural -ii)

  1. Alternative form of -ivo

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin -ium.

Suffix[edit]

-io m

  1. Forms the name of chemical elements; -ium

Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix on i-stems.

Suffix[edit]

-iō f (genitive -iōnis); third declension

  1. Used to form abstract nouns from verbs.
Declension[edit]

Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative -iō -iōnēs
genitive -iōnis -iōnum
dative -iōnī -iōnibus
accusative -iōnem -iōnēs
ablative -iōne -iōnibus
vocative -iō -iōnēs
Usage notes[edit]

The suffix -iō is added to a verb to create a third-declension feminine abstract noun.

Examples:
legiō, from legō
regiō, from regō
Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  • Andrew L. Sihler (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

present active -iō, present infinitive -iāre, perfect active -iāvī, supine -iātum

  1. Used to form causative verbs from adjectives.
Conjugation[edit]
   Conjugation of -io (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -iō -iās -iat -iāmus -iātis -iant
imperfect -iābam -iābās -iābat -iābāmus -iābātis -iābant
future -iābō -iābis -iābit -iābimus -iābitis -iābunt
perfect -iāvī -iāvistī -iāvit -iāvimus -iāvistis -iāvērunt, -iāvēre
pluperfect -iāveram -iāverās -iāverat -iāverāmus -iāverātis -iāverant
future perfect -iāverō -iāveris -iāverit -iāverimus -iāveritis -iāverint
passive present -ior -iāris, -iāre -iātur -iāmur -iāminī -iantur
imperfect -iābar -iābāris, -iābāre -iābātur -iābāmur -iābāminī -iābantur
future -iābor -iāberis, -iābere -iābitur -iābimur -iābiminī -iābuntur
perfect -iātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -iātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -iātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -iem -iēs -iet -iēmus -iētis -ient
imperfect -iārem -iārēs -iāret -iārēmus -iārētis -iārent
perfect -iāverim -iāverīs -iāverit -iāverīmus -iāverītis -iāverint
pluperfect -iāvissem -iāvissēs -iāvisset -iāvissēmus -iāvissētis -iāvissent
passive present -ier -iēris, -iēre -iētur -iēmur -iēminī -ientur
imperfect -iārer -iārēris, -iārēre -iārētur -iārēmur -iārēminī -iārentur
perfect -iātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -iātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -iā -iāte
future -iātō -iātō -iātōte -iantō
passive present -iāre -iāminī
future -iātor -iātor -iantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -iāre -iāvisse -iātūrus esse -iārī -iātus esse -iātum īrī
participles -ians -iātūrus -iātus -iandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
-iāre -iandī -iandō -iandum -iātum -iātū
Derived terms[edit]



Old Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ium, from the adjectival suffix -ius.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-io

  1.  (added to nouns) A suffix forming abstract nouns.
    sennor(lord, master) + ‎-io → ‎sennorio(dominion, jurisdiction)

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From New Latin -ium, from Latin -um, based on Latin terms for metals, such as ferrum(iron).

Suffix[edit]

-io m

  1. -ium

Derived terms[edit]



Welsh[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-io

  1. Suffix used to form verbal nouns.

Derived terms[edit]