-io

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Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ia in country names.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈio]
  • Rhymes: -io
  • Hyphenation: i‧o

Suffix[edit]

-io

  1. a country named after the root, whether that is a people, person, city, or river
    japano (a Japanese person) + ‎-io → ‎Japanio (Japan)
    Kolumbo (Columbus) + ‎-io → ‎Kolumbio (Colombia)
    Romo (Rome) + ‎-io → ‎Romio (the Roman Empire)
    Niĝero (the Niger River) + ‎-io → ‎Niĝerio (Nigeria)
    Esperanto (the Esperanto language) + ‎-io → ‎Esperantio (a notional Esperanto-speaking land)
  2. a science named after its practitioner
    astronomo (astronomer) + ‎-io → ‎astronomio (astronomy)
    biologo (biologist) + ‎-io → ‎biologio (biology)
    kirurgo (surgeon) + ‎-io → ‎kirurgio (surgery (branch of medicine))

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From multiple sources, including extraction from words derived with -o from verb stems ending in -i, as well as from earlier and still dialectal -i(j)o, from -ja-i (for labial ai > o, compare plural forms of kala-type nouns), from -ja + -i.

Suffix[edit]

-io (front vowel harmony variant -iö)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs or verbal stems.
    itää (to sprout) + ‎-io → ‎itiö (spore (of e.g. mushroom, moss))
    valita (to choose) + ‎-io → ‎valio (elite, select)
  2. Forms nouns from other nouns, adjectives, numbers or their stems.
    yksi (one) + ‎-io → ‎yksiö (a one-room apartment)
    kolme (three) + ‎-io → ‎kolmio (a triangle; a yield sign)
    neljä (four) + ‎-io → ‎neliö (a square); shorter form for a square meter

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -io (Kotus type 3/valtio, no gradation)
nominative -io -iot
genitive -ion -ioiden
-ioitten
partitive -iota -ioita
illative -ioon -ioihin
singular plural
nominative -io -iot
accusative nom. -io -iot
gen. -ion
genitive -ion -ioiden
-ioitten
partitive -iota -ioita
inessive -iossa -ioissa
elative -iosta -ioista
illative -ioon -ioihin
adessive -iolla -ioilla
ablative -iolta -ioilta
allative -iolle -ioille
essive -iona -ioina
translative -ioksi -ioiksi
instructive -ioin
abessive -iotta -ioitta
comitative -ioineen
Possessive forms of -io (type valtio)
possessor singular plural
1st person -ioni -iomme
2nd person -iosi -ionne
3rd person -ionsa

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English -ia, French -ie, Italian -ia, Russian -ия (-ija), Spanish -ia, ultimately from Latin -ia, from Ancient Greek -ία (-ía).

Suffix[edit]

-io

  1. suffix denoting the country, region, domain, territory or province dependent upon the authority of a person
    duko (duke; duchess) + ‎-io → ‎dukio (duchy)
    episkopo (bishop) + ‎-io → ‎episkopio (bishopric, diocese, episcopate)
    paroko (parish priest, rector) + ‎-io → ‎parokio (parish)
    rejo (sovereign, ruler, king, queen, monarch) + ‎-io → ‎rejio (kingdom)

Usage notes[edit]

A common but false misconception is that countries that end with -ia in Ido, for example Albania, use this suffix when in fact it's part of the root itself. Though, -io at times can help shape country names to fit; Mexikia uses the extra i so not to be confused with Mexiko (Mexico City) at the same time resembling other country names.

Derived terms[edit]


Italian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown. Perhaps from Latin -ērium.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈi.o/
  • Rhymes: -io
  • Hyphenation: -ì‧o

Suffix[edit]

-io m (plural -ii)

  1. Used with verb roots to derive nouns with durative, intensive or frequentative connotation; -le
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -īvus.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈi.o/
  • Rhymes: -io
  • Hyphenation: -ì‧o

Suffix[edit]

-io m (plural -ii)

  1. Alternative form of -ivo

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin -ius.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /jo/, /ˈi.o/
  • Rhymes: -io
  • Hyphenation: -io, -ì‧o

Suffix[edit]

-io m

  1. Added to nouns and adjectives to form adjectives meaning “having the quality of”; -y

Etymology 4[edit]

From Latin -ium.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /jo/, /ˈi.o/
  • Rhymes: -io
  • Hyphenation: -io, -ì‧o

Suffix[edit]

-io m

  1. Forms the name of chemical elements; -ium
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

From Latin -īvit via Vulgar Latin -īut.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /jo/, /ˈi.o/
  • Rhymes: -io
  • Hyphenation: -io, -ì‧o

Suffix[edit]

-io

  1. (archaic, Dantesque) Used with a stem to form the third-person singular past historic of regular -ire verbs

Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix on i-stems.

Suffix[edit]

-iō f (genitive -iōnis); third declension

  1. Used to form abstract nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

The suffix -iō is added to a verb to create a third-declension feminine abstract noun.

Examples:
legiō, from legō
regiō, from regō
Declension[edit]

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -iō -iōnēs
Genitive -iōnis -iōnum
Dative -iōnī -iōnibus
Accusative -iōnem -iōnēs
Ablative -iōne -iōnibus
Vocative -iō -iōnēs

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Extension of (possibly by rebracketing).

Suffix[edit]

-iō m (genitive -iōnis); third declension

  1. Suffixed to noun or adjective stems, forms various types of nouns designating persons that are characterized by or related to the base word, such as nicknames or names of professions.
Usage notes[edit]

Personal appellations ending in -iō appear to have often had a derogatory or pejorative shade of meaning, which in some cases resulted in a sense near that of a diminutive, as in the case of homunciō.[1]

Declension[edit]

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -iō -iōnēs
Genitive -iōnis -iōnum
Dative -iōnī -iōnibus
Accusative -iōnem -iōnēs
Ablative -iōne -iōnibus
Vocative -iō -iōnēs

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From -i-ō. Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *-yeti.

Suffix[edit]

-iō (present infinitive -iāre, perfect active -iāvī, supine -iātum); first conjugation

  1. Used to form causative verbs from adjectives.
Conjugation[edit]
   Conjugation of -iō (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -iō -iās -iat -iāmus -iātis -iant
imperfect -iābam -iābās -iābat -iābāmus -iābātis -iābant
future -iābō -iābis -iābit -iābimus -iābitis -iābunt
perfect -iāvī -iāvistī -iāvit -iāvimus -iāvistis -iāvērunt,
-iāvēre
pluperfect -iāveram -iāverās -iāverat -iāverāmus -iāverātis -iāverant
future perfect -iāverō -iāveris -iāverit -iāverimus -iāveritis -iāverint
sigmatic future1 -iāssō -iāssis -iāssit -iāssimus -iāssitis -iāssint
passive present -ior -iāris,
-iāre
-iātur -iāmur -iāminī -iantur
imperfect -iābar -iābāris,
-iābāre
-iābātur -iābāmur -iābāminī -iābantur
future -iābor -iāberis,
-iābere
-iābitur -iābimur -iābiminī -iābuntur
perfect -iātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -iātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -iātus + future active indicative of sum
sigmatic future1 -iāssor -iāsseris -iāssitur
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -iem -iēs -iet -iēmus -iētis -ient
imperfect -iārem -iārēs -iāret -iārēmus -iārētis -iārent
perfect -iāverim -iāverīs -iāverit -iāverīmus -iāverītis -iāverint
pluperfect -iāvissem -iāvissēs -iāvisset -iāvissēmus -iāvissētis -iāvissent
sigmatic aorist1 -iāssim -iāssīs -iāssīt -iāssīmus -iāssītis -iāssint
passive present -ier -iēris,
-iēre
-iētur -iēmur -iēminī -ientur
imperfect -iārer -iārēris,
-iārēre
-iārētur -iārēmur -iārēminī -iārentur
perfect -iātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -iātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -iā -iāte
future -iātō -iātō -iātōte -iantō
passive present -iāre -iāminī
future -iātor -iātor -iantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -iāre -iāvisse -iātūrum esse -iārī,
-iārier2
-iātum esse -iātum īrī
participles -iāns -iātūrus -iātus -iandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
-iandī -iandō -iandum -iandō -iātum -iātū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to"). It is also attested as having a rare sigmatic future passive indicative form ("will have been").
2The present passive infinitive in -ier is a rare poetic form which is attested.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-iō (present infinitive -ere, perfect active , supine -um); third conjugation iō-variant

  1. Used to form some third conjugation verbs.
Conjugation[edit]
   Conjugation of -iō (third conjugation -variant)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -iō -is -it -imus -itis -iunt
imperfect -iēbam -iēbās -iēbat -iēbāmus -iēbātis -iēbant
future -iam -iēs -iet -iēmus -iētis -ient
perfect -istī -it -imus -istis -ērunt,
-ēre
pluperfect -eram -erās -erat -erāmus -erātis -erant
future perfect -erō -eris -erit -erimus -eritis -erint
sigmatic future1 -is -it -imus -itis -int
passive present -ior -eris,
-ere
-itur -imur -iminī -iuntur
imperfect -iēbar -iēbāris,
-iēbāre
-iēbātur -iēbāmur -iēbāminī -iēbantur
future -iar -iēris,
-iēre
-iētur -iēmur -iēminī -ientur
perfect -us + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -us + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -us + future active indicative of sum
sigmatic future1 -or -eris -itur
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -iam -iās -iat -iāmus -iātis -iant
imperfect -erem -erēs -eret -erēmus -erētis -erent
perfect -erim -erīs -erit -erīmus -erītis -erint
pluperfect -issem -issēs -isset -issēmus -issētis -issent
sigmatic aorist1 -im -īs -īt -īmus -ītis -int
passive present -iar -iāris,
-iāre
-iātur -iāmur -iāminī -iantur
imperfect -erer -erēris,
-erēre
-erētur -erēmur -erēminī -erentur
perfect -us + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -us + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -e -ite
future -itō -itō -itōte -iuntō
passive present -ere -iminī
future -itor -itor -iuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -ere -isse -ūrum esse -um esse -um īrī
participles -iēns -ūrus -us -iendus,
-iundus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
-iendī -iendō -iendum -iendō -um

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to"). It is also attested as having a rare sigmatic future passive indicative form ("will have been").

Derived terms[edit]
Category Latin terms suffixed with -io (third conjugation) not found

Etymology 5[edit]

From i stem+*-yéti (denominative suffix) or later non-inherited fabrications.

Suffix[edit]

-iō (present infinitive -īre, perfect active -īvī, supine -ītum); fourth conjugation

  1. Used to form fourth conjugation verbs.
Conjugation[edit]
   Conjugation of -iō (fourth conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -iō -īs -it -īmus -ītis -iunt
imperfect -iēbam -iēbās -iēbat -iēbāmus -iēbātis -iēbant
future -iam -iēs -iet -iēmus -iētis -ient
perfect -īvī,
-iī
-īvistī,
-iistī
-īvit,
-iit
-īvimus,
-iimus
-īvistis,
-iistis
-īvērunt,
-īvēre,
-iērunt,
-iēre
pluperfect -īveram,
-ieram
-īverās,
-ierās
-īverat,
-ierat
-īverāmus,
-ierāmus
-īverātis,
-ierātis
-īverant,
-ierant
future perfect -īverō,
-ierō
-īveris,
-ieris
-īverit,
-ierit
-īverimus,
-ierimus
-īveritis,
-ieritis
-īverint,
-ierint
sigmatic future1 -īssō -īssis -īssit -īssimus -īssitis -īssint
passive present -ior -īris,
-īre
-ītur -īmur -īminī -iuntur
imperfect -iēbar -iēbāris,
-iēbāre
-iēbātur -iēbāmur -iēbāminī -iēbantur
future -iar -iēris,
-iēre
-iētur -iēmur -iēminī -ientur
perfect -ītus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -ītus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -ītus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -iam -iās -iat -iāmus -iātis -iant
imperfect -īrem -īrēs -īret -īrēmus -īrētis -īrent
perfect -īverim,
-ierim
-īverīs,
-ierīs
-īverit,
-ierit
-īverīmus,
-ierīmus
-īverītis,
-ierītis
-īverint,
-ierint
pluperfect -īvissem,
-iissem
-īvissēs,
-iissēs
-īvisset,
-iisset
-īvissēmus,
-iissēmus
-īvissētis,
-iissētis
-īvissent,
-iissent
sigmatic aorist1 -īssim -īssīs -īssīt -īssīmus -īssītis -īssint
passive present -iar -iāris,
-iāre
-iātur -iāmur -iāminī -iantur
imperfect -īrer -īrēris,
-īrēre
-īrētur -īrēmur -īrēminī -īrentur
perfect -ītus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -ītus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -īte
future -ītō -ītō -ītōte -iuntō
passive present -īre -īminī
future -ītor -ītor -iuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -īre -īvisse,
-iisse
-ītūrum esse -īrī -ītum esse -ītum īrī
participles -iēns -ītūrus -ītus -iendus,
-iundus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
-iendī -iendō -iendum -iendō -ītum -ītū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to").

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Petersen, Walter, 1910. Greek diminutives in -ION; a study in semantics, pages 194-195

Old Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -ium, from the adjectival suffix -ius.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-io

  1. (added to nouns) A suffix forming abstract nouns.
    sennor (lord, master) + ‎-io → ‎sennorio (dominion, jurisdiction)

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Spanish: -ío

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese -io, from Latin -īvus. Doublet of -ivo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-io (feminine -ia, plural -ios, feminine plural -ias)

  1. -ive; -y (forms adjectives from verbs, indicating a tendency or inclination)
    escorregar (to slip) + ‎-io → ‎escorregadio (slippery)
    arredar (to withdraw from) + ‎-io → ‎arredio (withdrawn, solitary)

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-io (plural -ios)

  1. (informal) forms collectives
    mulher (woman) + ‎-io → ‎mulherio (a bunch of women)

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-io (plural -ios)

  1. (chemistry) -ium (forms the names of chemical elements and isotopes)

Etymology 4[edit]

Verb[edit]

-io

  1. Obsolete spelling of -iu

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from New Latin -ium, from Latin -um, based on Latin terms for metals, such as ferrum (iron).

Suffix[edit]

-io m (plural -ios)

  1. -ium

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Variant of -o, initially after a stem that contained /j/ (for Brythonic /ɣ/ or from palatalization after a diphthong), later extended to other verbstems.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-io

  1. Forms verbnouns from verbs and other parts of speech.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

  • -o (Forms verbnouns from verb stems ending in )