-ior

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Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *-jōs, from Proto-Indo-European *-yōs, for original **-yoss, i.e. the neuter s-stem *-yos with masculine nominative *-s. The ō from the nominative case was made common to all cases. Afterwards nom.sg. -iōr > -ior, by Latin sound laws. Thus paradoxically, as in the r-stems (soror, -tor, -or), in the resulting paradigm the one form with a short stem vowel is the only form whose stem was etymologically long.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ior m, f ‎(neuter -ius); third declension

  1. forms adjectives’ comparative degrees
    esculentusesculentior
    pūtiduspūtidior
    ulterulterior (not *ultrior)

Declension[edit]

Third declension, comparative variant

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
nominative -ior -ius -iōrēs -iōra
genitive -iōris -iōrum
dative -iōrī -iōribus
accusative -iōrem -ius -iōrēs -iōra
ablative -iōre -iōribus
vocative -ior -ius -iōrēs -iōra

Usage notes[edit]

  • This suffix is usually appended to the oblique stem of the adjective’s absolute degree.

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]

  • -issimus ‎(suffix forming adjectives’ superlative degrees)

References[edit]

<references>

  • ^ Andrew L. Sihler (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press