-tus

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See also: TUS, tus, tus', tuş, tuš, tús, tùs, and tüs

Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *-tos, from Proto-Indo-European *-tós (suffix creating verbal adjectives).

Compare Proto-Slavic *-tъ, Proto-Germanic *-daz, *-taz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-tus m (feminine -ta, neuter -tum); first/second declension

  1. Forms the past participle of verbs.
  2. Forms adjectives having the sense provided with.
    iūs (law, legality; equity, the right, justice)iūstus (lawful, legal; equitable, rightful, just)
    onus (a burden or load, especially one excessive in magnitude)onustus (heavily laden”, “burdened”, “overencumbered by a load)
Usage notes[edit]

The stem may be modified in some unpredictable ways when this suffix is attached:

  • A stem-final b or g is devoiced to p and c respectively. If the stem ends in a short vowel and g, this vowel is lengthened. A stem-final qu is also delabialised, giving c.
    agō (lead) + ‎-tus → ‎āctus
    scrībō (write) + ‎-tus → ‎scrīptus
    coquō (cook) + ‎-tus → ‎coctus
  • A stem-final v behaves differently depending on which Proto-Italic consonant it developed from. If it developed from Proto-Italic w, it becomes u (forming a diphthong or long ū), and if it developed from , it becomes c.
  • A stem-final d or t fuses with the t of the suffix, giving -ssus. This is then simplified to -sus when not preceded by a short vowel.
    cadō (fall) + ‎-tus → ‎cāsus
  • A stem-final rg also fuses with the t, giving -rsus.
    mergō (plunge) + ‎-tus → ‎mersus
  • A stem final ll or rr sometimes fuses with the t, to -lsus and -rsus respectively.
    currō (run) + ‎-tus → ‎cursus
  • When attached to stems of 1st, 2nd or 4th conjugation verbs, the final vowel of the stem may be retained or dropped. It's retained for most 1st conjugation verbs, while it becomes i for many 2nd conjugation verbs:
    errō (errā-) (wander) + ‎-tus → ‎errātus
    moneō (warn) + ‎-tus → ‎monitus
Declension[edit]

First/second declension.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative -tus -ta -tum -tī -tae -ta
genitive -tī -tae -tī -tōrum -tārum -tōrum
dative -tō -tō -tīs
accusative -tum -tam -tum -tōs -tās -ta
ablative -tō -tā -tō -tīs
vocative -te -ta -tum -tī -tae -ta
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Italic *-tus, from Proto-Indo-European *-tus (suffix deriving action nouns from verb roots).

Compare Proto-Germanic *-þuz, Ancient Greek -τύς (-tús), Proto-Slavic *-tu (whence Czech -tí).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-tus m (genitive -tūs); fourth declension

  1. Forms action nouns from verbs.
    cadō + ‎-tus → ‎casus
    habeō (I have, posses, have on, carry, wear) + ‎-tus → ‎habitus (a state or condition of being, physical character, demeanour, style of dress)
    sūmō (I spend [time, effort, money, etc.]) + ‎-tus → ‎sumptus (expenditure)
Usage notes[edit]

Same as for the participle suffix; see -sus.

Declension[edit]

Fourth declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative -tus -tūs
genitive -tūs -tuum
dative -tuī -tibus
accusative -tum -tūs
ablative -tū -tibus
vocative -tus -tūs
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *-tuHts (abstract-noun forming suffix). Compare Proto-Celtic *-tūts, Gothic -𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃 (-dūþs). See -tās.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-tūs f (genitive -tūtis); third declension

  1. Forms collective/abstract nouns from adjectives.
    iuvenis (young, a young man)iuventūs (the young, young men collectively; the period or qualities of youthful manhood, youth)
    senex (an old man)senectūs (old men collectively; the period or condition of old age)
Usage notes[edit]

Same as for the participle suffix.

Declension[edit]

Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative -tūs -tūtēs
genitive -tūtis -tūtum
dative -tūtī -tūtibus
accusative -tūtem -tūtēs
ablative -tūte -tūtibus
vocative -tūs -tūtēs
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]