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See also: TUS, tus, tus', tuş, tuš, tús, tùs, and tüs




  1. Romanization of -𐍄𐌿𐍃


Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *-tos, from Proto-Indo-European *-tós (suffix creating verbal adjectives).

Compare Proto-Slavic *-tъ, Proto-Germanic *-daz, *-taz.



-tus (feminine -ta, neuter -tum); first/second-declension suffix

  1. Forms the past participle of verbs.
  2. Forms adjectives having the sense "provided with".
    iūs (law, legality; equity, the right, justice)iūstus (lawful, legal; equitable, rightful, just)
    onus (a burden or load, especially one excessive in magnitude)onustus (burdened”, “heavily laden”, “overencumbered by a load)
Usage notes[edit]

The stem may be modified in certain predictable or unpredictable ways when this suffix is attached:

  • Stem-final b and g are regularly devoiced to p and c respectively. If the stem ends in a short vowel and g, this vowel is usually lengthened (due to Lachmann's Law) but sometimes remains short (especially after the high vowel i, as in cōnstrictus from cōnstringō or fictus from fingō).
    agō (lead) + ‎-tus → ‎āctus
    scrībō (write) + ‎-tus → ‎scrīptus
  • A stem-final qu is delabialised, giving c.
    coquō (cook) + ‎-tus → ‎coctus
  • Stem-final v can become either u (forming a diphthong or long ū) or c. These are the expected outcomes of the distinct Proto-Italic consonants w and , respectively, which merged between vowels as Latin v. In actual fact, the outcome in Latin does not always correspond regularly to the original Proto-Italic consonant because of later analogical changes.
  • A stem-final d or t fuses with the t of the suffix, giving -ssus. This is simplified to -sus if not preceded by a short vowel. Similarly to g-final stems, d-final stems sometimes (but not always) have lengthened vowels in the past participle due to Lachmann's Law.
    cadō (fall) + ‎-tus → ‎cāsus
  • A stem-final rg also fuses with the t, giving -rsus.
    mergō (plunge) + ‎-tus → ‎mersus
  • A stem final ll or rr sometimes fuses with the t, to -lsus and -rsus respectively.
    currō (run) + ‎-tus → ‎cursus
  • When attached to stems of 1st, 2nd or 4th conjugation verbs, the long stem-final vowel may be either retained unchanged, replaced by short -i-, or dropped entirely. It's retained for most 1st conjugation verbs, while it becomes short i for many 2nd conjugation verbs:
    errō (errā-) (wander) + ‎-tus → ‎errātus
    moneō (warn) + ‎-tus → ‎monitus

First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative -tus -ta -tum -tī -tae -ta
Genitive -tī -tae -tī -tōrum -tārum -tōrum
Dative -tō -tō -tīs
Accusative -tum -tam -tum -tōs -tās -ta
Ablative -tō -tā -tō -tīs
Vocative -te -ta -tum -tī -tae -ta
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Italic *-tus, from Proto-Indo-European *-tus (suffix deriving action nouns from verb roots).

Compare Proto-Germanic *-þuz, Ancient Greek -τύς (-tús), Proto-Slavic *-tu (whence Czech -tí).



-tus m (genitive -tūs); fourth declension

  1. Forms action nouns from verbs.
    cadō + ‎-tus → ‎cāsus
    habeō (I have, possess, have on, carry, wear) + ‎-tus → ‎habitus (a state or condition of being, physical character, demeanour, style of dress)
    sūmō (I spend [time, effort, money, etc.]) + ‎-tus → ‎sūmptus (expenditure)
Usage notes[edit]

Same as for the participle suffix; see -sus.


Fourth-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -tus -tūs
Genitive -tūs -tuum
Dative -tuī -tibus
Accusative -tum -tūs
Ablative -tū -tibus
Vocative -tus -tūs
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *-tuHts (abstract-noun forming suffix). Compare Proto-Celtic *-tūss, Gothic -𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃 (-dūþs). See -tās.



-tūs f (genitive -tūtis); third declension

  1. Forms collective/abstract nouns from adjectives or other nouns.
    iuvenis (young, a young man)iuventūs (the young, young men collectively; the period or qualities of youthful manhood, youth)
    senex (an old man)senectūs (old men collectively; the period or condition of old age)
Usage notes[edit]

Same as for the participle suffix.


Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -tūs -tūtēs
Genitive -tūtis -tūtum
Dative -tūtī -tūtibus
Accusative -tūtem -tūtēs
Ablative -tūte -tūtibus
Vocative -tūs -tūtēs
Derived terms[edit]