ius

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See also: Ius, IUs, and -ius

Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *jowos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂yew-, an extended form of the root *h₂ey- (the source of aevum and iuvenis).

Noun[edit]

iūs n ‎(genitive iūris); third declension

  1. law, right, duty
    Jus summum saepe summa est malitia (The highest law is often the greatest roguery) — Terence Heautontimorumenos 4.5.43 (translation Benham's Book of Quotations 1948)
  2. court of law
Inflection[edit]

Third declension neuter.

Case Singular Plural
nominative iūs iūra
genitive iūris iūrum
dative iūrī iūribus
accusative iūs iūra
ablative iūre iūribus
vocative iūs iūra
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *yows-, from *yew-(to mix (of meal preparation)). Cognate with Ancient Greek ζῦθος(zûthos), ζύμη(zúmē), ζωμός(zōmós), Proto-Germanic *justaz (whence Old Norse ostr), Proto-Slavic *juxa (whence Polish jucha, Russian уха(uxa)).

Noun[edit]

iūs n ‎(genitive iūris); third declension

  1. gravy
  2. broth
  3. sauce
Inflection[edit]

Third declension neuter.

Case Singular Plural
nominative iūs iūra
genitive iūris iūrum
dative iūrī iūribus
accusative iūs iūra
ablative iūre iūribus
vocative iūs iūra
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • ius in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • IUS in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette, s.v.ius”.
  • Meissner, Carl; Auden, Henry William (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to have become independent, be no longer a minor: sui iuris factum esse
    • to teach some one letters: erudire aliquem artibus, litteris (but erudire aliquem in iure civili, in re militari)
    • to grant a people its independence: populum liberum esse, libertate uti, sui iuris esse pati
    • to administer justice (said of the praetor): ius dicere
    • to administer justice (said of the praetor): ius reddere (Liv. 3. 33)
    • to assert one's right: ius suum persequi
    • to obtain justice: ius suum adipisci (Liv. 1. 32. 10)
    • to maintain one's right: ius suum tenere, obtinere
    • to waive one's right: de iure suo decedere or cedere
    • to go to law with a person: (ex) iure, lege agere cum aliquo
    • to proceed against some one with the utmost rigour of the law; to strain the law in one's favour: summo iure agere cum aliquo (cf. summum ius, summa iniuria)
    • to summon some one before the court: in ius, in iudicium vocare aliquem
    • a sound judicial system: aequa iuris descriptio (Off. 2. 4. 15)
    • to live with some one on an equal footing: aequo iure vivere cum aliquo
    • to reduce law to a system: ius ad artem redigere
    • absence of justice: ius nullum
    • to trample all law under foot: ius ac fas omne delere
    • against all law, human and divine: contra ius fasque
    • with full right: optimo iure
    • prerogative, privilege: ius praecipuum, beneficium, donum, also immunitas c. Gen.
    • to violate the law of nations: ius gentium violare
    • quite rightly: et recte (iure, merito)
    • quite rightly: et recte (iure) quidem
    • quite rightly: recte, iure id quidem
    • with perfect right: meo (tuo, suo) iure
    • with perfect right: iusto iure
    • legitimately; with the fullest right: optimo iure (cf. summo iure, sect. XV. 1).
    • (ambiguous) to give the state a constitution: civitati leges, iudicia, iura describere
    • (ambiguous) anarchy reigns supreme: omnia divina humanaque iura permiscentur (B. C. 1. 6. 8)
    • (ambiguous) to trample all law under foot: omnia iura pervertere
  • ius in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 507