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See also: Ius, IUs, and -ius




  1. Romanization of 𐌹𐌿𐍃


Alternative forms[edit]


Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *jowos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂yew-, an extended form of the root *h₂ey- (the source of aevum and iuvenis). Cognate with Sanskrit योस् (yós).


iūs n (genitive iūris); third declension

  1. law, right
    163 BCE, Publius Terentius Afer, Heauton Timorumenos :
    Ius summum saepe summa est malitia.
    Supreme law is often supreme malice.
  2. subjective right, individual right
  3. court of law

Third-declension noun (neuter, i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative iūs iūra
Genitive iūris iūrium
Dative iūrī iūribus
Accusative iūs iūra
Ablative iūre iūribus
Vocative iūs iūra

The genitive plural iūrum does appear rarely, e.g. in Plautus and in Cato as quoted by Charisius.[1]

Derived terms[edit]
  • Asturian: xuru
  • German: Jura, Jus
  • Italian: gius, giure
  • Old Galician-Portuguese: jur
  • Sicilian: jussu
  • Old Spanish: jur

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *yúHs (soup, broth). Cognate with Sanskrit यूस् (yūs), यूष (yūṣa), Ancient Greek ζύμη (zúmē), Proto-Germanic *justaz, Proto-Slavic *juxa.


iūs n (genitive iūris); third declension

  1. gravy
  2. broth, soup
  3. sauce
  4. juice

Third-declension noun (neuter, imparisyllabic non-i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative iūs iūra
Genitive iūris iūrum
Dative iūrī iūribus
Accusative iūs iūra
Ablative iūre iūribus
Vocative iūs iūra
Derived terms[edit]


  • jūs”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • iūs”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • ius in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • ius in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to have become independent, be no longer a minor: sui iuris factum esse
    • to teach some one letters: erudire aliquem artibus, litteris (but erudire aliquem in iure civili, in re militari)
    • to grant a people its independence: populum liberum esse, libertate uti, sui iuris esse pati
    • to administer justice (said of the praetor): ius dicere
    • to administer justice (said of the praetor): ius reddere (Liv. 3. 33)
    • to assert one's right: ius suum persequi
    • to obtain justice: ius suum adipisci (Liv. 1. 32. 10)
    • to maintain one's right: ius suum tenere, obtinere
    • to waive one's right: de iure suo decedere or cedere
    • to go to law with a person: (ex) iure, lege agere cum aliquo
    • to proceed against some one with the utmost rigour of the law; to strain the law in one's favour: summo iure agere cum aliquo (cf. summum ius, summa iniuria)
    • to summon some one before the court: in ius, in iudicium vocare aliquem
    • a sound judicial system: aequa iuris descriptio (Off. 2. 4. 15)
    • to live with some one on an equal footing: aequo iure vivere cum aliquo
    • to reduce law to a system: ius ad artem redigere
    • absence of justice: ius nullum
    • to trample all law under foot: ius ac fas omne delere
    • against all law, human and divine: contra ius fasque
    • with full right: optimo iure
    • prerogative, privilege: ius praecipuum, beneficium, donum, also immunitas c. Gen.
    • to violate the law of nations: ius gentium violare
    • quite rightly: et recte (iure, merito)
    • quite rightly: et recte (iure) quidem
    • quite rightly: recte, iure id quidem
    • with perfect right: meo (tuo, suo) iure
    • with perfect right: iusto iure
    • legitimately; with the fullest right: optimo iure (cf. summo iure, sect. XV. 1).
    • (ambiguous) to give the state a constitution: civitati leges, iudicia, iura describere
    • (ambiguous) anarchy reigns supreme: omnia divina humanaque iura permiscentur (B. C. 1. 6. 8)
    • (ambiguous) to trample all law under foot: omnia iura pervertere
  • ius”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 2, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 507
  1. ^ Lewis & Short, p. 1019.