Appendix:Latin fourth declension

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Latin words of the fourth declension are generally masculines or, less commonly, feminines in -us and neuters in . The genitive is in -ūs.

The dative-ablative plural -ibus may appear less commonly as -ubus.


Masculine or feminine -us form[edit]

Case Singular Plural
nominative -us -ūs
genitive -ūs -uum
dative -uī -ibus
accusative -um -ūs
ablative -ibus
vocative -us -ūs


Neuter -ū form[edit]

Case Singular Plural
nominative -ua
genitive -ūs
accusative -ua
ablative -ibus
vocative -ua


Feminine -ō form (from Greek)[edit]

Nouns derived from Greek feminine proper nouns in -ω (genitive -ους).

19th-century grammars often consider this type to belong to the third declension,[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] and alternative third-declension Latin suffixes are attested for some (e.g. Callistōnem). The distinction is no longer seen as salient, but classifying the otherwise indeclinable paradigm with genitive in -ūs as fourth-declension is consistent with the general practice of distinguishing declension based on the genitive singular ending.

Examples of this category: Aëllō, Allēctō (Alēctō), Argō, Brīmō, Callistō, Calypsō, Celaenō, Cētō, Chariclō, Clīō, Clōthō (Clōtō), Dīdō, Drȳmō, Ēchō, Enȳō, Eratō, Erichthō, Hērō (Erō), Īō, Īnō, Lātō, Lētō, Mantō, Melanthō, Pērō, Polyxō, Pȳthō, Sapphō, Theānō, Tȳrō, Xanthō

Citation form: ēchō, ēchūs f

Case Singular
nominative ēch-ō
genitive ēch-ūs
dative ēch-ō
accusative ēch-ō
ablative ēch-ō
vocative ēch-ō

Note: The accusative can also end in -ūn or -ōn, like Dīdō with accusative Dīdūn.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Elementary Grammar of the Latin Language, with a Series of Latin and English Exercises for Translation and a Collection of Latin Reading Lessons, with the requisite Vocabularies. By Dr. Raphael Kähner, translated by J. T. Champlin, Boston, 1845, p.64
  2. ^ A School Grammar of the Latin Language. By C. G. Zumpt, translated by Leonhard Schmitz, enlarged by Charles Anthon. New York, 1859, p.39
  3. ^ Anthon's Latin Grammar.--Part 1. First Latin Lessons, containing the most important Parts of the Grammar of the Latin Language, together with appropriate Exercises in the Translating and Writing of Latin, for the Use of Beginners. By Charles Anthon, New York, 1857, p.51
  4. ^ The Principles of Latin Grammar, comprising the Substance of the most approved Grammar Extant, with an Appendix and complete Index. For the Use of Schools and Colleges. By Peter Bullions, revised by Charles D. Morris, New York, 1867, p.35
  5. ^ A Grammar of the Latin Language; for the Use of Schools and Colleges. Tenth Edition. By E. A. Andrews and S. Stoddard, Boston, 1844, p.28
  6. ^ Adam's Latin Grammar: With numerous Additions and Improvements, designed to aid the more advanced Student by fuller Elucidations of the Latin Classics. By C. D. Cleveland, 1836, p.33
  7. ^ A Grammar of the Latin Language, on the Basis of the Grammar of Dr. Alexander Adam, of Edinburgh. Third Edition. By C. D. Cleveland, Philadelphia, 1845, p.34
  8. ^ A Latin Grammar founded on comparative Grammar. Revised edition. By J. H. Allen and J. B. Greenough, Boston, p.26 (from 1877, 1878, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1884, 1885, 1887)
  9. ^ A Latin Grammar. By Charles E. Bennett, original and revised edition, p.28 (the original edition is from 1895, the revised edition from 1908, both were reprinted several times)
  10. ^ A Complete Latin Grammar for the Use of Students. Third edition, revised. By John William Donaldson, Cambridge, 1867 (M.DCCC.LXVII.), p.35
  11. ^ Schulgrammatik der lateinischen Sprache. Neunte verbesserte Auflage. By Dr. Otto Schulz, Halle, 1836, p.67
  12. ^ Lateinische Grammatik. Neunte Ausgabe. By Dr. C. G. Zumpt, Berlin, 1844, p.73
  13. ^ E. J. A. Seyferts auf Geschichte und Kritik gegründete lateinische Sprachlehre, zunächst für allerley Lernende. Dritter Theil oder Zweyter Cursus. Brandenburg, 1800, p.71
  14. ^ Grammaire théorique et pratique de la langue latine a l'usage de l'athenée de Luxembourg. By P. Clomes, P. D. Joachim, J. B. Wolff, Luxembourg, 1827, p.15