Appendix:Latin fourth declension

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Latin words of the fourth declension are generally masculines or, less commonly, feminines in -us and neuters in . The genitive is in -ūs.

The dative-ablative plural -ibus may appear less commonly as -ubus.


Masculine or feminine -us form[edit]

Case Singular Plural
nominative -us -ūs
genitive -ūs -uum
dative -uī -ibus
accusative -um -ūs
ablative -ibus
vocative -us -ūs


Neuter -ū form[edit]

Case Singular Plural
nominative -ua
vocative -ua
accusative -ua
genitive -ūs
ablative -ibus


Feminine -ō form (from Greek)[edit]

Nouns derived from Greek feminine proper nouns in -ω (genitive -ους).

19th-century grammars often treat this type under the third declension,[1] and alternative third-declension Latin suffixes are attested for some (e.g. Callistōnem). The distinction is no longer seen as salient, but classifying the otherwise indeclinable paradigm with genitive in -ūs as fourth-declension is consistent with the general practice of distinguishing declension based on the genitive singular ending.

Examples of this category: Aëllō, Allēctō (Alēctō), Argō, Brīmō, Callistō, Calypsō, Celaenō, Cētō, Chariclō, Clīō, Clōthō (Clōtō), Dīdō, Drȳmō, Ēchō, Enȳō, Eratō, Erichthō, Hērō (Erō), Īō, Īnō, Lātō, Lētō, Mantō, Melanthō, Pērō, Polyxō, Pȳthō, Sapphō, Theānō, Tȳrō, Xanthō

Citation form: ēchō, ēchūs f

Case Singular
nominative ēch-ō
genitive ēch-ūs
dative ēch-ō
accusative ēch-ō
ablative ēch-ō
vocative ēch-ō

Note: The accusative can also end in -ūn or -ōn, like Dīdō with accusative Dīdūn.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ For example:
    • Donaldson, John William (1867) A Complete Latin Grammar for the Use of Students, 3rd edition, Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and Co., page 35
    • Allen, J. H., Greenough, J. B. (1880) Latin Grammar Founded on Comparative Grammar, Boston: Ginn and Heath, page 26
    • Bennett, Charles E. (1895) A Latin Grammar, Norwood: Norwood Press, page 28