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Etymology 1[edit]

From vīvō (live, survive).



vīctus m (genitive vīctūs); fourth declension

  1. living, way of life, lifestyle
    • c. 30 B.C.E., Cicero, Dē Lēgibus 3.14.32:
      Ego autem nōbilium vītā vīctūque mūtātō mōrēs mūtārī cīvitātum putō.
      But I consider that the way of life of cities can be changed by changing the life and living of the noble.
  2. nourishment, provision, diet, that which sustains life
    • c. 52 BCE, Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 6.22:
      Agrīcultūrae nōn student, maiorque pars eōrum vīctūs in lacte, cāseō, carne cōnsistit.
      They don't care about agriculture, and a greater part of their diet consists of milk, cheese and meat.
    • 8 CE, Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.311–312:
      Maxima pars undā rapitur; quibus unda pepercit,
      illōs longa domant inopī ieiūnia vīctū.
      The greatest part is taken away by water; long fasting
      overcome with poor nourishment those whom the waves spared.
  3. (Late Latin, law) necessaries of life
    • C.E. 530 – C.E. 533, Justinian I, Dīgesta seu Pandectae 50.16.43–44:
      Verbō vīctus continentur, quae ēsuī pōtuīque cultuīque corporis quaeque ad vīvendum hominī necessāria sunt. Vestem quoque vīctūs habēre vicem Labeō ait.
      Et cētera, quibus tuendī cūrandīve corporis nostrī grātiā ūtimur, eā appellātiōne sīgnificantur.
      By the word vīctus is meant that which is necessary for the feeding and hydration and care of the body and for the life of a human. Labeo includes clothing under this term.
      And the other things which we use for keeping and caring for our bodies are meant by that term.

Fourth-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative vīctus vīctūs
Genitive vīctūs vīctuum
Dative vīctuī vīctibus
Accusative vīctum vīctūs
Ablative vīctū vīctibus
Vocative vīctus vīctūs
Usage notes[edit]

As seen above in the first quotation, this word is often alliteratively in apposition with vīta.

Related terms[edit]
  • Aromanian: yiptu, viptu
  • Italian: vitto
  • Romanian: vipt
  • Spanish: victo
  • Polish: wikt

Etymology 2[edit]

Perfect passive participle of vincō (conquer).



victus (feminine victa, neuter victum); first/second-declension participle

  1. conquered, vanquished, subdued, having been conquered.

First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative victus victa victum victī victae victa
Genitive victī victae victī victōrum victārum victōrum
Dative victō victō victīs
Accusative victum victam victum victōs victās victa
Ablative victō victā victō victīs
Vocative victe victa victum victī victae victa


  • victus”, in Charlton T[homas] Lewis; Charles [Lancaster] Short (1879) [] A New Latin Dictionary [], New York, N.Y.; Cincinnati, Ohio; Chicago, Ill.: American Book Company; Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • victus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • victus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • victus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to have attained to a high degree of culture: omni vita atque victu excultum atque expolitum esse (Brut. 25. 95)
    • daily bread: victus cotidianus
    • meagre diet: victus tenuis (Fin. 2. 28. 90)
    • (ambiguous) the necessaries of life: quae ad victum pertinent
    • (ambiguous) things indispensable to a life of comfort: res ad victum cultumque necessariae
    • (ambiguous) a livelihood: quae suppeditant ad victum (Off. 1. 4. 12)
    • (ambiguous) to earn a livelihood by something: victum aliqua re quaerere
    • (ambiguous) to be defeated in fight, lose the battle: proelio vinci, superari, inferiorem, victum discedere
  • victus”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers