-y

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -y, -i, from Old English -iġ (-y, -ic, suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-īgaz (-y, -ic), from Proto-Indo-European *-kos, *-ikos, *-iḱos (-y, -ic). Cognate with Scots -ie (-y), West Frisian -ich (-y), Dutch -ig (-y), Low German -ig (-y), German -ig (-y), Swedish -ig (-y), Latin -icus (-y, -ic), Ancient Greek -ικός (-ikós). Doublet of -ic.

Suffix[edit]

-y

  1. Added to nouns and adjectives to form adjectives meaning “having the quality of”.
    mess + ‎-y → ‎messy
    mouse + ‎-y → ‎mousy
    blue + ‎-y → ‎bluey
    clay + ‎-y → ‎clayey
  2. Added to verbs to form adjectives meaning "inclined to".
    run + ‎-y → ‎runny
    stick + ‎-y → ‎sticky
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix is still very productive and can be added to almost any word. When the resulting word is not perceived to be a real word, a hyphen is used before the suffix (sandcastlesandcastle-y). A few long-established words ending with this suffix have distinctive spellings, such as wintry and fiery, which English learners might misspell as *wintery and *firey.
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
  • (form “having quality of” adjectives): -less
Translations[edit]

Note: translations of English words ending in -y do not necessarily end in the suffixes listed below.

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English and Scots. Compare Dutch -je (diminutive suffix), German Low German -je (diminutive suffix). Also spelled -ie.

Suffix[edit]

-y

  1. Forming diminutive nouns. Also used for familiar and pet names as a term of endearment.
    granny
    Billy
Translations[edit]

Note: translations of English words ending in -y do not necessarily end in the suffixes listed below.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Anglo-Norman and Middle French -ie and -e, from Latin -ia, -ium, -tās, Ancient Greek -ίᾱ (-íā), -ειᾰ (-eia), -ιον (-ion). Cognate (as far as Latin -ia is involved) with German -ei and Dutch -ij.

Suffix[edit]

-y

  1. Forming abstract nouns denoting a state, condition, or quality.
    modest + ‎-y → ‎modesty
    honest + ‎-y → ‎honesty
    -nym + ‎-y → ‎-nymy
    as in toponym + ‎-y → ‎toponymy
    -logue + ‎-y → ‎-logy
    as in analogue + ‎-y → ‎analogy
  2. Used in the name of some locations which end in -ia in Latin.
    Italy, Germany, Saxony, Hungary, Sicily, Lombardy, Tuscany, Albany, Brittany, Burgundy, Picardy, Normandy, Turkey.
Translations[edit]

Note: translations of English words ending in -y do not necessarily end in the suffixes listed below.

Derived terms[edit]


Asturian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-y

  1. him, she, it (third-person singular indirect pronoun)
    da-y pan
    Give him bread

Related terms[edit]

  • -yos, -ys (third-person plural indirect pronoun)

Egyptian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ii
  1. Forms the plural imperative of verbs, particularly weak verbs.
  2. Optionally used to form the subjunctive of weak verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

The plural imperative can also appear without this suffix, in a form identical to the singular imperative.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ii
  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ii
  1. Optionally marks the masculine imperfective active participle, intervening between the stem and the gender/number endings.
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ii
  1. Optionally marks the masculine singular perfective passive participle of strong verbs, intervening between the stem and the gender/number endings.
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ii
  1. Optionally marks the perfective passive participle of weak verbs, intervening between the stem and the gender/number endings.
  2. Optionally marks the perfective relative form of weak verbs, intervening between the stem and the gender/number endings.

Etymology 6[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ii
  1. Rarely marks the imperfective relative form of all verbs, intervening between the stem and the gender/number endings.
Alternative forms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 328–329, 354

Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-y

  1. Front vowel variant of -u.

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -y (Kotus type 1/valo, no gradation)
nominative -y -yt
genitive -yn -yjen
partitive -yä -yjä
illative -yyn -yihin
singular plural
nominative -y -yt
accusative nom. -y -yt
gen. -yn
genitive -yn -yjen
partitive -yä -yjä
inessive -yssä -yissä
elative -ystä -yistä
illative -yyn -yihin
adessive -yllä -yillä
ablative -yltä -yiltä
allative -ylle -yille
essive -ynä -yinä
translative -yksi -yiksi
instructive -yin
abessive -yttä -yittä
comitative -yineen
Inflection of -y (Kotus type 2/palvelu, no gradation)
nominative -y -yt
genitive -yn -yjen
-yiden
-yitten
partitive -yä -yjä
-yitä
illative -yyn -yihin
singular plural
nominative -y -yt
accusative nom. -y -yt
gen. -yn
genitive -yn -yjen
-yiden
-yitten
partitive -yä -yjä
-yitä
inessive -yssä -yissä
elative -ystä -yistä
illative -yyn -yihin
adessive -yllä -yillä
ablative -yltä -yiltä
allative -ylle -yille
essive -ynä -yinä
translative -yksi -yiksi
instructive -yin
abessive -yttä -yittä
comitative -yineen

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-y

  1. Alternative form of -i (used after “hard” consonants).

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English -ig.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-y

  1. Designates an adjective, in many cases formed by being appended to a noun.
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-y

  1. Alternative form of -yf
References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-y

  1. Alternative form of -ie
References[edit]

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-y

  1. nominative plural ending of some masculine nouns.
  2. vocative plural ending of some masculine nouns.
  3. genitive singular ending of some feminine nouns.
  4. nominative plural ending of some feminine nouns.
  5. accusative plural ending of some feminine nouns.
  6. vocative plural ending of some feminine nouns.
  7. personal, animate, and inanimate masculine nominative singular ending of some adjectives.
  8. personal, animate, and inanimate masculine vocative singular ending of some adjectives.
  9. inanimate masculine accusative singular ending of some adjectives.
  10. personal masculine nominative plural ending of some adjectives.
  11. personal masculine vocative plural ending of some adjectives.

Quechua[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-y

  1. Infinitive marker.
    mikhuy (to eat)
  2. Nominalizes verbs. The act of doing something. "-ing."
    pampachay (pardon, remission)
  3. Indicates first-person singular possessive.
    mikhuna (food)mikhunay (my food)
  4. Conjugative suffix for the second-person imperative mood.
    Uyariway! ("(You) listen to me!")