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It-様.png
U+69D8, 様
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-69D8

[U+69D7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+69D9]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Glyph origin[edit]

Japanese shinjitai Simplified from (𣴎); compare bottom of .

Right component is approximately 𦍌 + 氺.

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 木廿土水 (DTGE) or X木廿土水 (XDTGE), composition𣴎)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 546, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15352
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: not present, would follow volume 2, page 1284, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+69D8

Chinese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“appearance; form; shape; look; expression; air; etc.”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“Acorn.; A tree in the genus Quercus.”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. certain form or way
  2. condition, state
  3. design, pattern
  4. indicates humbleness or politeness

Readings[edit]

As variant kanji of :

Usage notes[edit]

When written in 草体 (sōtai, highly-cursive) style, this kanji form is called 平様 (hira-zama, literally common form) to distinguish from the kyūjitai form 永様 (ei-sama, literally -form), and its variant froms 次様 (tsugi-zama, for , literally -form) and 美様 (bi-zama, for 𣖙, literally -form).

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
よう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

/jɨau//jɔː//joː/

From Middle Chinese (MC *jɨɐŋH).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana よう, rōmaji , historical hiragana やう)

  1. way, style, appearance
Derived terms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , -na inflection, hiragana よう, rōmaji , historical hiragana やう)

  1. be like, look like, seem like, as if, having the likeness of
    まるで (ゆめ) ()ている (よう)だ。
    Maru de yume o mite iru da.
    It felt as if I were dreaming.
  2. (as 様に (yō ni)) I hope; I pray; may
     (せい) (こう)しますように
    Seikō shimasu yō ni.
    I wish [myself/you] success.
Inflection[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • In contemporary Japanese, this term is often written in hiragana.
  • Traditional Japanese grammar analyzes this term as a 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb), ようだ (yō da), from the noun () and the auxiliary verb .
Derived terms[edit]

Proper nonun[edit]

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana よう, rōmaji , historical hiragana やう)

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
さま
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (sa, that, pronominal indicating a person, place, thing, or direction in the middle distance) +‎ (ma, likeness, way, similarity, suffix indicating a quality).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

(with rendaku when used as a suffix in some combinations)

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (limited to the noun sense)

Noun[edit]

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana さま, rōmaji sama)

  1. a person's appearance (as of body, or style, or face, etc.)
  2. the state or situation of a thing
     (えい) (びん)感覚 (かんかく) (するど)いこと。また、そのさま[1]
    Eibin. Kankaku ga surudoi koto. Mata, sono sama.
    Eibin. For the senses to be sharp. Or, the state of being such.
  3. the general trend, tenor, or feel of a thing
  4. one's social station, status, or quality
  5. the way or means of doing something, how one does something
  6. the reason or circumstances for something
Derived terms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana さま, rōmaji sama)

  1. (archaic, honorific) second-person pronoun: you, you all
  2. (archaic, honorific) third-person distal pronoun: he, she, they (distant from both speaker and listener)
Usage notes[edit]

Used primarily by women of the red-light districts of the Edo period.[2]

The pronoun senses have largely fallen into disuse. These originated as abbreviations of longer forms 君様 (kimisama, literally lord + that way), 方様 (katasama, literally that side + that way), or 貴様 (kisama, literally noble + that way), with the -sama suffix (see below) developing into an independent use.

Suffix[edit]

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana さま, rōmaji -sama, alternative reading ざま, rōmaji -zama)

  1. (honorific) polite personal suffix: honorable, Mr., Ms.
    吉田 (よしだ) (さま) ()られました。
    Yoshida-sama ga koraremashita.
    Mr. [honorable] Yoshida has come here.
  2. (honorific) attaching to nouns or other nominals: a politeness marker that often has no direct translation, replacing copula です (​desu)
     () (ろう) (さま)
    Gokurōsama.
    You have done well [honorable].
  3. attaching to specific nouns or other nominals: that way, that direction
     (さか) (さま) (よこ) (さま)
    sakasama, yokosama
    backwards, sideways
  4. (archaic) attaching to verbs: just as (indicating the specific time when the verb is happening)
  5. attaching to verbs: the way of doing something, how one does something (often undergoes rendaku, changing -sama to -zama)
     (すわ) (さま)
    suwarisama
    how one sits
Usage notes[edit]

The honorific senses developed out of euphemistic use of the noun sense of sama, “that way”, as an oblique form of reference, starting from around the Muromachi period.[2]

The -sama suffix after personal names is more respectful than the everyday さん (-san), and is generally only used when being very polite. Gender-neutral. This is sometimes glossed as honorable, but honorable is also used as a title, such as for judges or governors or certain ranks of nobility, whereas -sama is purely about politeness and relative social closeness.

Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
ちゃま
Grade: 3
Irregular

Childish version of sama above.[1] Compare the formation of ちゃん (-chan) from さん (-san).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji , hiragana ちゃま, rōmaji -chama)

  1. (childish) honorific suffix: Same as さま (​sama) above

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan