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U+69D8, 様

CJK Unified Ideographs
See also: and




Japanese shinjitai Simplified from (𣴎); compare bottom of .

Right component is approximately 𦍌 + 氺.

Han character[edit]

(radical 75 +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 木廿土水 (DTGE) or X木廿土水 (XDTGE), composition𣴎)

  1. shape, form, pattern, style


  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 546, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15352
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: not present, would follow volume 2, page 1284, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+69D8


Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)



(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. sir, madam (more respectful than Mr., Ms, Mrs., Miss)


Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
Grade: 3


From Middle Chinese (iɑ̀ng?, shape, style, pattern).



(hiragana よう, rōmaji , historical hiragana やう)

  1. way, style, appearance


(hiragana よう, rōmaji , historical hiragana やう)

  1. be like, look like, seem like, as if, having the likeness of
    • まるで (ゆめ) ()ている (よう)だ。
      Maru de yume o mite iru da.
      It felt as if I were dreaming.
Usage notes[edit]

In contemporary Japanese, this term is often written in hiragana.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3

From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (sa, that, pronominal indicating a person, place, thing, or direction in the middle distance) +‎ (ma, likeness, way, similarity, suffix indicating a quality).[2]


(with rendaku when used as a suffix in some combinations)

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (limited to the noun sense)


(hiragana さま, rōmaji sama)

  1. a person's appearance (as of body, or style, or face, etc.)
  2. the state or situation of a thing
  3. the general trend, tenor, or feel of a thing
  4. one's social station, status, or quality
  5. the way or means of doing something, how one does something
  6. the reason or circumstances for something


(hiragana さま, rōmaji sama)

  1. (archaic, honorific) second-person pronoun: you, you all
  2. (archaic, honorific) third-person distal pronoun: he, she, they (distant from both speaker and listener)
Usage notes[edit]

Used primarily by women of the red-light districts of the Edo period.[2]

The pronoun senses have largely fallen into disuse. These originated as abbreviations of longer forms 君様 (kimisama, literally lord + that way), 方様 (katasama, literally that side + that way), or 貴様 (kisama, literally noble + that way), with the -sama suffix (see below) developing into an independent use.


(hiragana さま, rōmaji -sama, alternative reading ざま, rōmaji -zama)

  1. (honorific) polite personal suffix: honorable, Mr., Ms.
    吉田 (よしだ) (さま) ()られましたら…
    Yoshida-sama ga koraremashitara…
    If [honorable] Mr. Yoshida comes here...
  2. (honorific) attaching to nouns or other nominals: a politeness marker that often has no direct translation, replacing copula です desu
    苦労 (くろう) (さま)、ご無事 (ぶじ) ()られてお (うれ) (さま)や。
    Gokurōsama, gobuji ni korarete oureshisama ya.
    You've done well, I'm so happy you were able to get here without incident.
  3. attaching to specific nouns or other nominals: that way, that direction
     (さか) (さま) (よこ) (さま)
    sakasama, yokosama
    backwards, sideways
  4. (archaic) attaching to verbs: just as (indicating the specific time when the verb is happening)
  5. attaching to verbs: the way of doing something, how one does something (often undergoes rendaku, changing -sama to -zama)
     (すわ) (さま)
    how one sits
Usage notes[edit]

The honorific senses developed out of euphemistic use of the noun sense of sama, “that way”, as an oblique form of reference, starting from around the Muromachi period.[2]

The -sama suffix after personal names is more respectful than the everyday さん (san), and is generally only used when being very polite. Gender-neutral. This is sometimes glossed as honorable, but honorable is also used as a title, such as for judges or governors or certain ranks of nobility, whereas -sama is purely about politeness and relative social closeness.

See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3

Childish version of sama above.[1] Compare the formation of ちゃん (chan) from さん (san).



(hiragana ちゃま, rōmaji -chama)

  1. (childish) honorific suffix


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan