certain

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See also: Certain and cèrtain

English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English certeyn, certein, certain, borrowed from Old French certain, from a Vulgar Latin unattested form *certānus, extended form of Latin certus (fixed, resolved, certain), of the same origin as cretus, past participle of cernere (to separate, perceive, decide). Displaced native Middle English wis, iwis (certain, sure) (from Old English ġewiss (certain, sure)) and alternative Middle English spelling sertane (some, certain).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

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Wikipedia

certain (comparative more certain or certainer, superlative most certain or certainest)

  1. Sure, positive, not doubting.
    I was certain of my decision.
    Spain is now certain of a place in the finals.
    • 1833, [Frederick Marryat], chapter VIII, in Peter Simple. [], volume III, London: Saunders and Otley, [], published 1834, OCLC 27694940, page 113:
      [] I think, nay, I may say that I'm sartain, we'll have a hurricane afore morning. It's not the first time I've cruised in these latitudes.
  2. (obsolete) Determined; resolved.
  3. Not to be doubted or denied; established as a fact.
  4. Actually existing; sure to happen; inevitable.
    Bankruptcy is the certain outcome of your constant gambling and lending.
  5. Unfailing; infallible.
    • 1702, Richard Mead, Mechanical Account of Poisons
      I have often wished, that I knew so certain a remedy in any other disease
  6. Fixed or stated; regular; determinate.
  7. Known but not specifically named; indeterminate; indefinite; one or some; sometimes used independently as a noun, and meaning certain persons; see also "one".

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Determiner[edit]

certain

  1. Having been determined but not specified.
    Certain people are good at running.

Translations[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

certain

  1. (with of) Unnamed or undescribed members (of).
    She mentioned a series of contracts, of which certain are not cited.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (unnamed or undescribed members (of)): some

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French certain, from Vulgar Latin unattested form *certānus, extended form of Latin certus (fixed, resolved, certain).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /sɛʁ.tɛ̃/, (in laison) /sɛʁ.tɛ.n‿/
  • (file)

Adjective[edit]

certain (feminine certaine, masculine plural certains, feminine plural certaines)

  1. certain, for certain, indubitably
  2. certain (of indefinite, unknown or simply unmentioned identity, quality or quantity) (prepositive to the noun it modifies, and usually preceded by an indefinite article)
    un certain nombre dea certain number of
    une certaine femmea certain woman
  3. certain (sure, positive) (postpositive to the modified noun)
    une victoire certainea sure victory
    Il est certain qu'il viendra.
    It is certain that he will arrive.
  4. certain (fixed, determined)
  5. certain (specified, particular)

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

certain m (plural certains)

  1. certain; certainty

Determiner[edit]

certain m (feminine certaine, masculine plural certains, feminine plural certaines)

  1. certain: a determined but unspecified amount of ; some
    Certaines personnes vont aller.
    Some people are going.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The plurals certains and certaines are generally not used with articles, functioning much like articles themselves. Nevertheless, particularly in circumstantial and objective complements introduced by à[1] (including such compounds as jusqu'à), they are sometimes supported by the indefinite article de — not to be confused with the preposition de:
    • à de certaines heures du matin
    • par rapport à de certains pays voisins
    • s'avancer jusqu'à de certaines limites
    • s'attendre à de certaines conditions

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ certain”, in Trésor de la langue française informatisé [Digitized Treasury of the French Language], 2012.

Anagrams[edit]


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Vulgar Latin *certānus, from Latin certus. Compare Old Italian and Old Spanish certano.

Adjective[edit]

certain m (oblique and nominative feminine singular certaine)

  1. certain; sure

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle English: certeyn
  • French: certain