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From Proto-Italic *kritos, the original perfect passive participle of *krinō (Latin cernō). Due to the shift in meaning, it was replaced in the verbal paradigm by crētus.[1][2]



certus (feminine certa, neuter certum, comparative certior, superlative certissimus, adverb certē or certō); first/second-declension adjective

  1. certain
  2. fixed, settled, firm
  3. resolved, determined
    Synonyms: prōmptus, indubius, fixus
    Antonyms: incertus, dubius, suspensus, vagus, anceps
    certum est mihi [+ infinitive]it is my decision to..., I am resolved to..., I mean...
  4. sure


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative certus certa certum certī certae certa
Genitive certī certae certī certōrum certārum certōrum
Dative certō certō certīs
Accusative certum certam certum certōs certās certa
Ablative certō certā certō certīs
Vocative certe certa certum certī certae certa

Derived terms[edit]



  • certus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • certus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • certus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • certus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the fixed stars: sidera certis locis infixa
    • this much is certain: hoc (not tantum) certum est
    • I am quite certain on the point: mihi exploratum est, exploratum (certum) habeo
    • I am determined: certum (mihi) est
    • I am firmly resolved: certum deliberatumque est
    • to impose fixed limitations: fines certos terminosque constituere
    • (ambiguous) I know for a fact: certo (certe) scio (Arch. 12. 32)
    • (ambiguous) this much I can vouch for: illud pro certo affirmare licet
    • (ambiguous) to be based on a sound principle: a certa ratione proficisci
  • certus in Ramminger, Johann (2016 July 16 (last accessed)) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[3], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  1. ^ “certo” in: Alberto Nocentini, Alessandro Parenti, “l'Etimologico — Vocabolario della lingua italiana”, Le Monnier, 2010, →ISBN
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “cernō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN