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Shortened form of duhibius (held as two), from duo (two) + habeō (have, hold).



dubius (feminine dubia, neuter dubium); first/second declension

  1. Moving in two directions alternately, vibrating to and fro, fluctuating, wavering.
  2. (figuratively) Vacillating in mind, uncertain; doubting, doubtful, dubious, irresolute, undetermined.
  3. (of a situation) Precarious, dangerous, critical, difficult, adverse, doubtful.
  4. (of weather) Changeable, uncertain.


First/second declension.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative dubius dubia dubium dubiī dubiae dubia
genitive dubiī dubiae dubiī dubiōrum dubiārum dubiōrum
dative dubiō dubiō dubiīs
accusative dubium dubiam dubium dubiōs dubiās dubia
ablative dubiō dubiā dubiō dubiīs
vocative dubie dubia dubium dubiī dubiae dubia


Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]



  • dubius in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • dubius in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • dubius in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • dubius in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • a critical position; a hopeless state of affairs: res dubiae, perditae, afflictae
    • vague rumours reach us: dubii rumores afferuntur ad nos
    • to throw doubt upon a thing: in dubio ponere
    • to leave a thing undecided: aliquid in medio, in dubio relinquere (Cael. 20. 48)
    • without doubt, beyond all doubt: sine dubio (not sine ullo dubio)
    • (ambiguous) to throw doubt upon a thing: in dubium vocare
    • (ambiguous) to become doubtful: in dubium venire
    • (ambiguous) to leave a thing undecided: aliquid dubium, incertum relinquere