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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



*bʰuH- (perfective)

  1. to become, grow, appear

Reconstruction notes[edit]

Some sources such as LIV reconstruct full-grade forms *bʰewh₂- or *bʰweh₂-, on the basis of Italic and Celtic preterite and subjunctive stem.[1] According to Jasanoff, this root has no full grade, and the laryngeal cannot be precisely determined.[2]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Note: In many descendants, this root formed a suppletive verbal paradigm together with other roots, such as *h₁es- and *h₂wes-.

Further reading[edit]


  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 98-101
  2. ^ Jay Jasanoff, Hittite and the Indo-European Verb, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, pages 112, 113
  3. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1), Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Trubačóv, Oleg, editor (1976) , “byti”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 03, Moscow: Nauka, page 155
  5. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “probus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 490