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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Indo-European *bʰéwH-ti, e-grade of *bʰuH- (to grow, become, come into being, appear). Cognate with Latin fuī (have been, verb), Latin futūrus (becoming, imminent, future), Sanskrit भवति (bhávati).




  1. to be
    Synonym: *wesaną
  2. to become


This verb is suppletive. The past is conjugated with the strong class 5 stem wes-, the remainder with an irregular stem beu-.


For past tense and participle forms, see the identical forms at *wesaną.

  • *beuną (infinitive)
  • *biumi (1st person singular present)
  • *biusi (2nd person singular present) (see there for further descendants)
  • *biuþi (3rd person singular present)
  • *biunþi (3rd person plural present)
  • *beu (2nd person singular imperative)
    • Old English: bēo
      • Middle English: be
        • English: be
        • Scots: be
  • *beuþ (2nd person plural imperative)