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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. to dwell, live, reside
  2. to stay, spend the night

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₂wés-e-ti (thematic root present)
  • *h₂wés-ti ~ *h₂us-énti (athematic root present)
    • Hittite: 𒄷𒅖𒍣 (ḫuišzi, to live)[7]
  • *h₂(w)e-h₂wós-e ~ *h₂(w)e-h₂us-ḗr (stative)
  • *h₂í-h₂ews-e-ti (post-PIE reduplicated present with schwebeablaut)
  • *h₂wós-e-ti
    • Proto-Celtic: *woseti (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Tocharian: [Term?]
      • Tocharian B: wäs- (to stay, to wait)
  • *h₂wés-ti-s ~ *h₂us-téy-s
    • Proto-Germanic: *wistiz (essence, nature)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: [Term?]
  • (perhaps) *h₂wós-tu
Unsorted formations
  • Albanian:
  • Proto-Anatolian: [Term?]
    • Hittite: 𒄷𒍑 (ḫu-uš)
    • Luwian:
      Anatolian Hieroglyphs: [Anatolian Hieroglyphs needed] (hwisar, game, wild beasts)
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: ագանիմ (aganim, to spend the night), գոյ (goy, being, existence; God), գոմ (gom, to exist)
  • Proto-Hellenic: [Term?]
    • Ancient Greek: ἄεσα (áesa, to pass the night)[8]
  • Proto-Italic: [Term?]
  • Indo-Iranian
    • Sanskrit: वस्तु (vastu, essence, substance, truth) (relationship to *weh₁ unclear)


  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, page 293
  3. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1996) Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan] (in German), volume II, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 531
  4. ^ Cheung, Johnny (2007) Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 202
  5. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume III, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1171
  6. ^ Watkins, Calvert (1985) , “wes-”, in The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  7. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 353-354
  8. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) , “ἄεσα”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 25