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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. dawn
  2. east

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₂éws-ōs ~ *h₂us-
  • *h₂us-r-
  • *h₂us-ró-
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: उस्र (usrá-, reddish, ruddy; bright; matutinal)
  • *h₂ews-ro-
    • Albanian: *ausra
      • Albanian: err
    • Balto-Slavic: *auš(t)ra-
      • Latvian: àustra
      • Lithuanian: aušrà
      • Slavic: *utro (with unexpected loss of -s-, present in variant *ustro) (see there for further descendants)
    • Germanic: *austraz (east), *Austrǭ (Easter, springtime; name of a goddess) (with regular epenthesis *sr > *str) (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic: *aúhrā (< *h₂éwsreh₂)
    • Italic: aurora (dawn)
  • *h₂ews-teros
  • *h₂us-es-tero-
  • *h₂ewsḗr (< **h₂ews-ér-s, or *h₂us-s-ḗr "what is at dawn; mist" from locative *h₂us-s-ér(i) "at dawn" from *h₂éwsōs[2])
    • Hellenic: *auhḗr
      • Ancient Greek: ᾱ̓ήρ (āḗr)
        Doric Greek: ἀβήρ (abḗr)
        Aeolic Greek: αὐήρ (auḗr)
        Ionic Greek: ἠήρ (ēḗr)
        • → Ancient Greek: αὔριον (aúrion) (< locative *αὔρι (*aúri) < *h₂éwsri)
        • → Ancient Greek: ἦρι (êri, early in the morning) (< locative *h₂éwsri or *h₂ewséri, compare ἠέριος (ēérios, with the early morning))
  • *h₂wōsrih₂


  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. ^ Nikolaev, Alexander (Fall/Winter 2009), “The Germanic word for ‘sword’ and delocatival derivation in Proto-Indo-European”, in The Journal of Indo-European Studies[1] (PDF), volume 37, issue 3/4, page 466
  3. ^ Zimmer, Stefan (2006), “Some Names and Epithets in Culhwch ac Olwen”, in Studi Celtici[2], volume 3, retrieved 13 January 2016, pages 163–179 (See p. 11 in the online version.)