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See also:
U+6C38, 永
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C38

[U+6C37]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C39]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
永-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 戈弓水 (INE), four-corner 30232, composition𠃌丿)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 603, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17088
  • Dae Jaweon: page 996, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1546, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6C38

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɢʷraŋʔ
*ɢʷraŋʔ
*ɢʷraŋs
*ɢʷraŋs
*ɢʷraŋs

Etymology[edit]

Uncertain.

STEDT compares (OC *ɢʷraŋʔ) to provisional Proto-Lolo-Burmish meso-root *ʔ-m(y)aŋ¹/³;
Bodman (1980) derived (OC *ɢʷraŋʔ) from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *wrjaŋ & considered it cognate with Lepcha hryăn (hryăn) as well as Tibetan [script needed] (rgyong.ba, extrend stretch) and [script needed] (rgyang.ma, distance);
Schuessler (2007) considered to be unclear any connection with (OC *ɡʷeːŋʔ) and Tibetan [script needed] (ring, to be tall, long), Western Tamang rehng pā (to be long), Burmese ရှည် (hrany, to be long), (all from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-r(i/u)ŋ (to be long, to elongate)) & Proto-Loloish *s/m-riŋ (long (adv.)); so Schuessler compared (OC *ɢʷraŋʔ) to Khmer វែង (vɛɛng, long) and Khmer បង្វែង (bɑngvɛɛng, to prolong, divert, mislead, deceive) (both from Proto-Mon-Khmer *waiŋ (long)).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /yŋ²¹⁴/
Harbin /yŋ²¹³/
Tianjin /ʐuŋ¹³/
/yŋ¹³/
Jinan /yŋ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /iŋ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /yuŋ⁵³/
Xi'an /yŋ⁵³/
Xining /yə̃⁵³/
Yinchuan /yŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ỹn⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /yŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /yn⁴²/
Chengdu /yn⁵³/
Guiyang /in⁴²/
Kunming /ioŋ⁵³/
Nanjing /ioŋ²¹²/
Hefei /yn²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /yəŋ⁵³/
Pingyao /yŋ⁵³/
/y⁵³/ ~城村
Hohhot /ỹŋ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ioŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /ioŋ⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ʔioŋ⁵³/
Wenzhou /j̠oŋ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /yʌ̃³⁵/
Tunxi /yan²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /yn⁴¹/
Xiangtan /yn⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /yn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /iun³¹/
Taoyuan /ʒuŋ³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /weŋ²³/
Nanning /weŋ²⁴/
Hong Kong /wiŋ¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iŋ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œyŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ioŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zoŋ²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (35)
Final () (112)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠwiæŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷᵚiaŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiuaŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwiajŋX/
Li
Rong
/ɣiuɐŋX/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭwɐŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wɐŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yǒng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yǒng
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjwængX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷraŋʔ/
English long (time)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15423
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷraŋʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. perpetual; eternal; permanent; forever
  2. long (space or time)
  3. 53rd tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "eternity" (𝌺)
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. eternity
  2. long
  3. lengthy

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • New Nelson: 3031
  • Halpern: 1937
  • Halpern Learners: 1230
  • Heisig: 132
  • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 3a1.1
  1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
えい
Grade: 5
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠwiæŋX).

The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana えい, rōmaji ei)

  1. long (time)
  2. perpetual; eternal

Noun[edit]

(hiragana えい, rōmaji ei)

  1. (historical) Abbreviation of 永楽銭 (eirakusen).
  2. (historical) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
よう
Grade: 5
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠwiæŋX).

The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana よう, rōmaji , historical hiragana やう)

  1. (rare) Synonym of (ei, long (time), eternal)

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
なが
Grade: 5
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see なが.
(This term, , is a kanji spelling of なが.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(yeong) (hangeul , revised yeong, McCune–Reischauer yŏng, Yale yeng)

  1. long, deep, forever

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(vĩnh)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.