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U+4EE5, 以
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EE5

[U+4EE4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EE6]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
4 strokes
Stroke order
以-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 9, +3 in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 人+2 in simplified Chinese, 5 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 4 strokes in simplified Chinese, cangjie input 女戈人 (VIO), four-corner 28100, composition𠄌 or ⿲⿱)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 94, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 388
  • Dae Jaweon: page 199, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 105, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+4EE5

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
以-bronze-shang.svg 以-oracle.svg 以-bronze.svg 以-silk.svg 以-slip.svg 以-seal.svg 以-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a person () carrying something. It is often simplified to in pre-Qin ancient scripts.

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *la-k (to take; to fetch) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT). Cognate with (OC *hljɯɡ, “model; form; rule”), (OC *hljɯɡs, “to test; to try”).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (36)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨX/
Pan
Wuyun
/jɨX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ieX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨX/
Li
Rong
/iəX/
Wang
Li
/jĭəX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/iX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ji5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yiX ›
Old
Chinese
/*ləʔ/
English take, use

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14929
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*lɯʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. a preposition that expresses a boundary in time, orientation, direction or quantity
      ―  qián  ―  before
    自古 / 自古  ―  zìgǔ lái  ―  since time immemorial
    長安西 / 长安西  ―  cháng'ān dōng lù   ―  west of Chang’an East Road
    價格一千 [MSC, trad.]
    价格一千 [MSC, simp.]
    Jiàgé zài yīqiān yuán shàng. [Pinyin]
    The price is above one thousand yuan.
  2. by; with; by means of
    /   ―  shǎo shèng duō  ―  to defeat (enemy troops) with a force inferior in number
    德報怨 / 德报怨  ―  débàoyuàn  ―  to return good for evil (literally, “to recompense injury with kindness”)
    衣服 / 衣服  ―  mài yīfú wéi shēng  ―  to make a living by selling clothes
    大局 / 大局  ―  dàjú wéi zhòng  ―  to focus on the big picture (literally, “to treat the big picture as [something] serious”)
    彼此同樣態度對待對方 [MSC, trad.]
    彼此同样态度对待对方 [MSC, simp.]
    Bǐcǐ tóngyàng de tàidù duìdài duìfāng. [Pinyin]
    One another treating an opposing side with the same attitude.
  3. according to
    大小排列  ―  dàxiǎo páiliè  ―  to arrange by size
    類聚 / 类聚  ―  lèijù  ―  birds of a feather flock together (lit. things will be gathered together according to category)
  4. so as to; in order to
    正視聽 / 正视听  ―  zhèngshìtīng  ―  in order to ensure a correct understanding of the facts
    防萬一 / 防万一  ―  fángwànyī  ―  just in case (literally, “to protect against a contingency”)
    市民惡劣天氣作出適當預防措施減低可能引致人命傷亡財物損失 [MSC, trad.]
    市民恶劣天气作出适当预防措施减低可能引致人命伤亡财物损失 [MSC, simp.]
    Shìmín duì èliè tiānqì yào zuòchū shìdāng de yùfáng cuòshī, jiǎndī kěnéng yǐnzhì de rénmìng shāngwáng jí cáiwù sǔnshī. [Pinyin]
    The public should take appropriate preventive measures against severe weather in order to minimize possible loss of life, injury and property damage.
  5. because; because of
    善小而不為 / 善小而不为  ―  shàn xiǎo ér bù wéi  ―  do not fail to commit a good act just because it is small in scale.
  6. (literary) therefore; thus
  7. to use
  8. (literary) to consider as
  9. Short for 以色列 (Yǐsèliè, “Israel”).
    衝突 / 冲突  ―  Bā chōngtū  ―  Israel-Palestinian conflict
  10. a surname.
  11. () (Chinese linguistics) the Middle Chinese initial of (MCX), equivalent to the 4th (děng) of the initial (MC jɨoH)

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to be like; to be similar to; to resemble; etc.”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. compared to
  2. than
  3. by means of
  4. because
  5. in view of
  6. compared with

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MCX)

Prefix[edit]

() (i-

  1. from (this reference point) and (more)
    ()()igofrom now on
    その()()sono igofrom then on; since then
    この()()()kono hi igofrom this day on; ever since this day
    • 2008 March 15, “ジャンク・ウォリアー [Junk Warrior]”, in STARTER(スターター) DECK(デッキ), Konami:
      「ジャンク・シンクロン」+チューナー()(がい)のモンスター(いっ)(たい)()(じょう)
      “Janku Shinkuron” purasu Chūnā igai no monsutā ittai i
      “Junk Synchron” plus 1 or more non-Tuner monsters
    • 2017 March 25, “リンク・スパイダー [Link Spider]”, in STARTER(スターター) DECK(デッキ), Konami:
      (つう)(じょう)モンスター(いっ)(たい)
      (いち)(いっ)ターンに(いち)()()(ぶん)メインフェイズに(はつ)(どう)できる。()(ふだ)からレベル(よん)()()(つう)(じょう)モンスター(いっ)(たい)をこのカードのリンク(さき)(とく)(しゅ)(しょう)(かん)する。
      Tsūjō Monsutā ittai
      Ichi: Ittān ni ichi-do, jibun Mein Feizu ni hatsudō dekiru. tefuda kara Reberu yon ika no Tsūjō Monsutā ittai o kono kādo no rinku-saki ni Tokushu Shōkan suru.
      1 or more Normal Monsters
      1: Once per turn, can be activated during your Main Phase. Special Summons 1 Normal Monster of Level 4 or lower from your hand to where this card is linked to.
  2. by, with, by means of
    Synonym: …をもって (… o motte)

Usage notes[edit]

  • An expression prefixed with means "from this reference point, and more". It can only be translated upon contexts. The reference point can be understood as "now", "here", "this", or aforementioned.
    • ()(じょう) (ijō): "or more/higher/above"; literally "from this point, and anything more/higher/above"
    • ()() (ika): "or less/lower/below"; literally "from this point, and anything less/lower/below"
    • ()(ない) (inai): "within"; literally "from this range, and anything within"
    • ()(がい) (igai): "outside, other than"; literally "from this range, and anything outside"
    • ()(ぜん) (izen): "ago"; literally "from this point, and anything before"
    • ()() (igo): "later; ever since"; literally "from this point, and anything later"

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (sseo i))

  1. Hanja form? of (compared to).
  2. Hanja form? of (than).
  3. Hanja form? of (by means of).
  4. Hanja form? of (because).
  5. Hanja form? of (in view of).
  6. Hanja form? of (compared with).

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings:

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]