according to

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according to

  1. Based on what is said or stated by; on the authority of.
    According to the directions, the glue takes 24 hours to dry.
  2. In a manner conforming or corresponding to; in proportion to; in accordance with. [from 16th c.],
    • 1695, Thomas Sprat, A Discourse Made by Ld Bishop of Rochester To the Clergy of his Diocese:
      Our zeal should be according to knowledge.
    • 1897, Henry James, What Maisie Knew:
      there was only a frightening silence, unenlivened even by the invidious enquiries of former years, which culminated, according to its stern nature, in a still more frightening old woman, a figure awaiting her on the very doorstep.
    • 2022 December 14, Robin Leleux, “A royal occasion as heritage projects honoured: Wolferton”, in RAIL, number 972, page 61:
      Over the past 20 years, the station complex - including the main platform buildings, signal box and level crossing gates - has been lovingly restored, with the gates replaced according to original plans.
  3. Depending on.

Usage notes[edit]

  • According to is shown as a preposition in all four American unabridged dictionaries MW3, RHU, Encarta, and AHD.
  • The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (CGEL) classifies according as a preposition with to phrase as its complement, noting that the meaning when used as a preposition differs from the meaning of the "-ing" form of the verb accord.
  • The Oxford Dictionary of English, 2nd edition, 2005, lists according (according to) as an adverb with the definition "as stated by or in: according to financial experts"; also "in a manner corresponding or conforming to: cook the rice according to the instructions" and "in proportion or relation to: salary will be fixed according to experience".


Derived terms[edit]


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