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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
昔-oracle.svg 昔-bronze.svg 昔-silk.svg 昔-bigseal.svg 昔-seal.svg

Two pieces of flesh () left to dry in the sun ().

Han character[edit]

(radical 72 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 廿日 (TA), four-corner 44601, composition)

  1. formerly
  2. ancient
  3. in the beginning

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 492, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13816
  • Dae Jaweon: page 855, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1488, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+6614

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (123)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siᴇk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/siɛk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/siæk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/siajk̚/
Li
Rong
/siɛk̚/
Wang
Li
/sĭɛk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ɛk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ sjek ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]Ak/
English in the past

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13309
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sjaːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
むかし
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. The muka portion derives from the 未然形 ‎(mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 向く ‎(muku, to face opposite to something), implying “that which stands opposite from the present”. The shi portion is suffix ‎(shi) indicating direction, also found in words 縦し ‎(tatashi, the standing or vertical direction), 横し ‎(yokoshi, the sideways or horizontal direction). This appears to be a somewhat rare alternative form, more commonly encountered as ‎(sa), and may be cognate with the nominalizing adjective ending ‎(sa).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

‎(hiragana むかし, romaji mukashi)

  1. once (in the indeterminate past)
     (むかし) ()映画 (えいが)
    mukashi mita eiga
    a movie I once saw

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana むかし, romaji mukashi)

  1. the past, old times
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Toshikage)[3]
      むかし、式部大輔、左大弁かけて清原の王ありけり。
    昔と — past and the present
    昔の自分 — my past self
    昔からの友達 — a longtime friend ("a friend since old times")
    昔に戻る — to return to the past
  2. ancient
    昔の — ancient people
    もう昔のだ。— That's ancient history.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ Kōno, Tama (c. 970–999) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 10: Utsubo Monogatari 1 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 978-4-00-060010-1, published 1959.

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(seok, chak) (hangeul , , revised seok, chak, McCune-Reischauer sŏk, ch'ak, Yale sek, chak)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.