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U+6614, 昔
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6614

[U+6613]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6615]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 72, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 廿日 (TA), four-corner 44601, composition)

  1. formerly
  2. ancient
  3. in beginning

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 492, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13816
  • Dae Jaweon: page 855, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1488, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+6614

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms (ancient form)
𣊦 (ancient form)
𦠡 (ancient form)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
昔-oracle.svg 昔-bronze.svg 昔-silk.svg 昔-seal.svg 昔-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsjaːɡs, *ʔsjaːɡ
*ʔsjaːɡs
*zjaːɡs, *zjaːɡ
*zjaːɡs
*zraːɡs, *sʰaːɡs
*zraːɡs, *zraːɡ
*sʰaːɡs
*sʰaːɡs, *sʰaːɡ
*sʰaːɡs
*sʰaːɡs, *sʰaːɡ
*sʰaːɡ
*sʰaːɡ
*sʰaɡ
*sʰaɡ
*sʰaɡ, *ʔsjaːɡ, *zjaːɡ
*sʰaɡ
*sʰaɡ, *sʰjaːɡ
*sʰjaːɡ, *sʰaɡ, *sjaːɡ, *sjaːɡ
*ʔsraɡ, *ʔsraːɡ
*zraːwɢ, *sʰraːɡ, *zjaːɡ
*ʔsraːɡ
*sʰreːɡ, *zreːɡ
*ʔsjaːɡ, *zjaːɡ
*zjaːɡ
*zjaːɡ
*zjaːɡ
*sjaːɡ
*sjaːɡ
*sjaːɡ
*sjaːɡ
*sjaːɡ

Oracle bone form: Ideogrammic compound (會意): 𡿧 (disaster; floods) +  (sun) – the flood submerging the sun; the former times.

Shuowen: Two pieces of flesh () left to dry in the sun (). Original form of (OC *sjaːɡ).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: za2 - semantic (訓讀) (original character is ).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (123)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siᴇk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/siɛk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/siæk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/siajk̚/
Li
Rong
/siɛk̚/
Wang
Li
/sĭɛk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ɛk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xi
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ sjek ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]Ak/
English in the past

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13309
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sjaːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. dried meat
  2. former times; the past
  3. yesterday
  4. sunset; dusk
  5. Alternative form of (, “evening; night”).
  6. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. coarse; rough
  2. Alternative form of (cuò, “to criss-cross”).
  3. Alternative form of (cuò, “to use; to carry out”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
むかし
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. The muka portion derives from the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 向く (muku, to face opposite to something), implying “that which stands opposite from the present”. The shi portion is suffix (shi) indicating direction, also found in words 縦し (tatashi, the standing or vertical direction), 横し (yokoshi, the sideways or horizontal direction). This appears to be a somewhat rare alternative form, more commonly encountered as (sa), and may be cognate with the nominalizing adjective ending (sa).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

(hiragana むかし, rōmaji mukashi)

  1. once (in the indeterminate past)
     (むかし) () (えい) ()
    mukashi mita eiga
    a movie I once saw

Noun[edit]

(hiragana むかし, rōmaji mukashi)

  1. the past, old times
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Toshikage)[3]
      むかし、式部大輔、左大弁かけて清原の王ありけり。
     (むかし) (いま)mukashi to imathe past and the present
     (むかし) () (ぶん)mukashi no jibunmy past self
     (むかし)からの友達 (ともだち)mukashi kara no tomodachia longtime friend (literally, “a friend since old times”)
     (むかし) (もど)mukashi ni modoruto return to the past
  2. ancient
     (むかし) (ひと)mukashi no hitoancient people
    もう (むかし) (はなし)だ。mukashi no hanashi da.That's ancient history.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Kōno, Tama (c. 970–999) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 10: Utsubo Monogatari 1 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1959, →ISBN.

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(seok, chak) (hangeul , , revised seok, chak, McCune–Reischauer sŏk, ch'ak, Yale sek, chak)

  1. formerly
  2. ancient
  3. in beginning

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: tích, tếch, thách, tách

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.