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U+591C, 夜
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-591C

[U+591B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+591D]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
夜-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 36, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 卜人弓大 (YONK), four-corner 00247, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 246, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5763
  • Dae Jaweon: page 490, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 285, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+591C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𠙑

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
夜-bronze.svg 夜-seal.svg 夜-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *laːɡs): phonetic  (OC *laːɡ) + semantic  (moon).

The lower-right portion is a corruption/graphical variant of ; the remainder ( + ) is a reduced and distorted form of , used phonetically.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ja-n (night) (STEDT); cognate with Mizo zân (night), Burmese (nya., night).

Schuessler (2007) believes (OC *laːɡs) and (OC *ljaːɡ) are distinct as Tibeto-Burman keeps the etyma *ja-n (night) and *s-r(j)ak (day; day (24 horus); night) strictly separate. However, Baxter and Sagart (2014) suggests and have clear etymological connections and thus reconstructs similar finals in both words.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: mê5 - vernacular (訓讀) (original character is ).
Note:
  • ia5/ie5 - vernacular;
  • ie4 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (36)
Final () (100)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/iaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiaH/
Li
Rong
/iaH/
Wang
Li
/jĭaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯aH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ H ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]Ak-s/
English night

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14992
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*laːɡs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. night
  2. occurring during the night
  3. (Cantonese) late (in the night)
    呢排晚晚返屋企 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    Ngo5 ni1 paai4 maan5 maan5 dou1 hou2 je6 sin1 faan1 uk1 kei5-2. [Jyutping]
    Recently, I've been going home quite late in the night.
  4. Classifier for the number of nights.
    /   ―  sān tiān liǎng   ―  three days and two nights

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. night, nighttime

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
よる
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨yo1ru⟩ → */jʷoru//joru/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *yoru.

Derived from yo below, suffixed with an element ru of unclear meaning.[1] Compare (hi, day) (hiru, daytime), which seems to use this same ru element.[1]

Now the most common term for night in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(よる) (yoru

  1. night, evening
    (とう)(きょう)(よる)
    Tōkyō no yoru
    Tokyo nights
    (よる)(まち)(ある)
    yoru no machi o aruku
    to walk the streets at night
    (literally, “to walk the night streets”)
    ()(あん)(よる)()ごす
    fuan na yoru o sugosu
    to endure a night of anxiety
    (literally, “to pass an uneasy night”)
    (よる)(ほし)(ぞら)()()げる
    yoru no hoshizora o miageru
    to look up at the night's starry sky
    Synonym: 夜間 (yakan)
    Antonym: (hiru)
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(よる) (Yoru

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨yo1/jʷo//jo/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *yo.

In modern development, this term has taken on a more literary sense.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (yo

  1. (literary) night, evening
    ()(なつ)()(ゆめ)
    “Manatsu no Yo no Yume”
    A Midsummer Night's Dream
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (bam ya))

  1. Hanja form? of (night).

Compounds[edit]


Oki-No-Erabu[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(kun'yomi いぃーる, romaji yīru)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Ryukyuan *yoru, from Proto-Japonic *yoru. Cognate with Japanese (よる, yoru, night).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いぃーる, romaji yīru)

  1. night

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ゆる
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Proto-Ryukyuan *yoru, from Proto-Japonic *yoru. Cognate with Japanese (yoru, night).

Counter[edit]

(hiragana ゆる, rōmaji -yuru)

  1. nights
    (ちゅ)(ゆる)chuyuruone night
    ()(ゆる)tayurutwo nights

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ゆる, rōmaji yuru)

  1. night

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ゆー
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Proto-Ryukyuan *yo, from Proto-Japonic *yo. Cognate with Japanese (yo, night).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ゆー, rōmaji )

  1. night

References[edit]

  • ユル” in Haisai Okinawan Dialect.
  • ユル(ゆる)” in Okinawan Dialect Dictionary - Ajima.
  • ゆる” in Okinawan Dictionary - KozaWeb.
  • 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[1], 1963
  • ユー” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.
  • ユル” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Japonic *yoru. Derived from yo1 below, suffixed with an element ru of unclear meaning.[1] Compare (pi1, day) (pi1ru, daytime), which seems to use this same ru element.

Used as a standalone noun but not in compounds.

Noun[edit]

(yo1ru) (kana よる)

  1. night, evening
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 807), text here
      宇豆都仁波安布余志勿奈子奴婆多麻能用流能伊昧仁越都伎提美延許曽
      ututu ni pa apu yo2si mo nasi nubatama no2 yo1ru no2 ime2 ni wo tugi1te miye ko2so2
      There is no way to see you in reality. Please continue to appear in dreams of the night![2]
    Antonym: (pi1ru)
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (yoru)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Japonic *yo. First attested in the Kojiki (712 CE).[1]

Used as both a standalone noun and in compounds.

Noun[edit]

(yo1) (kana )

  1. night, evening
    • 711712, Kojiki (poem 3)
      ...阿遠夜麻迩比賀迦久良婆奴婆多麻能波伊傅那牟...
      ...awoyama ni pi1 ga kakuraba nubatama no2 yo1 pa idenamu...
      As soon as the sun hides behind the verdant mountains, then jet-black night will come.[3]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (yo)

Etymology 3[edit]

Attested in the Hizen-no-kuni Fudoki (c. 739 CE) and in the Man'yōshū (759 CE) as the Eastern Old Japanese variation of yo above.

Noun[edit]

(yu) (kana )

  1. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) night, evening
    • c. 732-739, Hizen-no-kuni Fudoki (poem 1)
      志努波羅能意登比賣能古袁佐比登母為禰弖牟志太夜伊幣爾久太佐牟
      sino1para no2 oto2pi1me1 no2 ko1 wo sa-pi1to2yu mo inetemu sida ya ipe1 ni kudasamu
      Once I've taken her, slept with her a single night―that little lady, the girl from the bamboo brakes―I'll send her down to her home.[4]
      [Note: Some later manuscripts erroneously replace the man'yōgana (wo) with (⟨so1 → so).]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ Haruo Shirane (2005) Classical Japanese: A Grammar, illustrated edition, Columbia University Press, →ISBN, page 320
  3. ^ Donald L. Philippi (2015) Kojiki (Volume 2255 of Princeton Legacy Library), Princeton University Press, →ISBN, pages 106-7
  4. ^ Helen Craig McCullough (1997), “Combinations of Poetry and Prose in Classical Japanese Narrative”, in Joseph Harris, Ph.D., Joseph Harris, Karl Reichl, editors, Prosimetrum: Crosscultural Perspectives on Narrative in Prose and Verse, illustrated edition, Boydell & Brewer, →ISBN, page 416

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(dạ, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Yonaguni[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(kun'yomi どぅる, romaji duru)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Ryukyuan *yoru, from Proto-Japonic *yoru. Cognate with Japanese (よる, yoru, night).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana どぅる, romaji duru)

  1. night