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U+591C, 夜
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-591C

[U+591B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+591D]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 36, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 卜人弓大 (YONK), four-corner 00247, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 246, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5763
  • Dae Jaweon: page 490, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 285, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+591C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
夜-bronze.svg 夜-seal.svg 夜-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*laːɡs
*laːɡs
*ʔsleːɡ
*ʔsleːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *laːɡs): phonetic  (OC *laːɡ) + semantic  (moon).

The lower-right portion is a corruption/graphical variant of ; the remainder ( + ) is a reduced and distorted form of , used phonetically.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-r(j)ak.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (36)
Final () (100)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/iaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiaH/
Li
Rong
/iaH/
Wang
Li
/jĭaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯aH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ H ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]Ak-s/
English night

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14992
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*laːɡs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. night
  2. occurring during the night
  3. (Cantonese) late (in the night)
    呢排晚晚返屋企 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    Ngo5 ni1 paai4 maan5 maan5 dou1 hou2 je6 sin1 faan1 uk1 kei5-2. [Jyutping]
    Recently, I've been going home quite late in the night.
  4. Classifier for the number of nights.
    /   ―  sān tiān liǎng   ―  three days and two nights

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. night, nighttime

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
よる
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨yo1ru⟩ → */jʷoru//joru/

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[1]

Derived from yo below, suffixed with an element ru of unclear meaning.[2] Compare (hi, day) (hiru, daytime), which seems to use this same ru element.[2]

Used as a standalone noun but not in compounds in Old Japanese. Now the most common term for night in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana よる, rōmaji yoru)

  1. night, evening
     (とう) (きょう) (よる)
    Tōkyō no yoru
    Tokyo nights
     () (あん) (よる) ()ごす
    fuan na yoru o sugosu
    to endure a night of anxiety
    (literally, “to pass an uneasy night”)
     (よる)星空 (ほしぞら) () ()げる
    yoru no hoshizora o miageru
    to look up at the night's starry sky
     (よる)のヒットスタジオ
    Yoru no Hitto Sutajio”
    "Hit Studio of the Night" (prominent Japanese music show)
    Synonym: 夜間 (yakan)
    Antonym: (hiru)
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana よる, rōmaji Yoru)

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨yo1/jʷo//jo/

From Old Japanese, appears in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[2]

Used as both a standalone noun and in compounds in Old Japanese. In the modern language, this term has taken on a more literary sense.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji yo)

  1. (literary) night, evening
    真夏 (まなつ) () (ゆめ)
    “Manatsu no Yo no Yume”
    A Midsummer Night's Dream
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2
Irregular

From Old Japanese, attested in the Hizen-no-kuni Fudoki (c. 739 CE) and in the Man'yōshū (759 CE).

Analyzed as the Eastern Old Japanese variation of yo above.

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji yu)

  1. (regional, obsolete) night, evening
    • c. 732-739, Hizen-no-kuni Fudoki (poem 1)
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
      篠原 (しのはら)弟姫 (おとひめ) ()をさ (ひと) () () ()てむ (しだ) (いへ)にくださむ [Modern spelling]
      shinohara no otohime no ko o sa-hitoyu mo inetemu shida ya ie ni kudasamu
      (please add an English translation of this example)
      [Note: Some later manuscripts erroneously replace the man'yōgana (wo) with (⟨so1 → so).]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 807), text here
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. 3.0 3.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (bam ya))

  1. night

Compounds[edit]


Oki-No-Erabu[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(kun'yomi いぃーる, romaji yīru)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese (yoru, night).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いぃーる, romaji yīru)

  1. night

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(kun'yomi ゆる, romaji yuru, kun'yomi ゆー, romaji )

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese (yoru, night).

Counter[edit]

(hiragana ゆる, romaji yuru)

  1. nights
    一夜 (ちゅゆる)
    chuyuru
    one night
    二夜 (たゆる)
    tayuru
    two nights

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ゆる, romaji yuru)

  1. night

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese (yo, night).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ゆー, romaji )

  1. night

References[edit]

  • 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[1], 1963

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(dạ, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Yonaguni[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(kun'yomi どぅる, romaji duru)

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese (yoru, night).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana どぅる, romaji duru)

  1. night