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U+5148, 先
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5148

[U+5147]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5149]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 10 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 竹土竹山 (HGHU), four-corner 24211, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 124, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1349
  • Dae Jaweon: page 260, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 267, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5148

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
先-oracle.svg 先-bronze.svg 先-seal.svg 先-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sɯːlʔ, *sɯːnʔ
*sɯːn, *sɯːns
*sɯːnʔ
*sɯːnʔ
*sɯːnʔ
*sɯːnʔ, *srin
*sɯːnʔ
*sɯːnʔ
*sɯːnʔ
*srin
*srin
*srin
*srin

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • sĕng - vernacular;
  • siĕng - literary.
Note:
  • seng/suiⁿ - vernacular;
  • sin - vernacular (limited, e.g. 先生);
  • sian - literary.
Note:
  • soin1 - vernacular;
  • sing1 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕian⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕian⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
/ɕian²¹/
Jinan /ɕiã²¹³/
Qingdao /siã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /sian²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕiã²¹/
Xining /ɕiã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕian⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕian⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕiɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕian⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕiɛ̃⁴⁴/
Nanjing /sien³¹/
Hefei /ɕiĩ²¹/
/t͡ɕʰiĩ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ɕie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕi⁵³/
Suzhou /siɪ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ɕi³³/
Hui Shexian /se³¹/
Tunxi /siɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /siẽ³³/
Xiangtan /siẽ³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɛn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sian⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sien²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sin⁵³/
Nanning /ɬin⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sin⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sian⁵⁵/
/siŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /siŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siŋ³³/
/sõi³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sin²³/
/ti²³/
/tai²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (16)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sen/
Pan
Wuyun
/sen/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɛn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sɛn/
Li
Rong
/sen/
Wang
Li
/sien/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sien/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiān
Middle
Chinese
‹ sen ›
Old
Chinese
/*sˤər/
English first

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 13458
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sɯːn/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to advance
  2. first; ahead of time; before; beforehand
    洗手間 / 洗手间  ―  Wǒ yào xiān qù xǐshǒujiān.  ―  I need to go to the bathroom first.
    廁所 [Cantonese, trad.]
    厕所 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Ngo5 jiu3 heoi3 ci3 so2 sin1. [Jyutping]
    I need to go to the bathroom first.
    兩日 / 两日 [Cantonese]  ―  sin1 loeng5 jat6 [Jyutping]  ―  day before yesterday; two days ago
  3. things of utmost importance
  4. ancient
  5. dead
  6. ancestor
  7. Short for 先生 (xiānshēng).
  8. the past
  9. Short for 先手 (xiānshǒu).
  10. (Cantonese) only then
    而家 [Cantonese, trad.]
    而家 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Keoi5 fan3 dou3 ji4 gaa1 sin1 fan3 seng2 gaau3. [Jyutping]
    He slept so long that he only woke up just now.
    呢啲唱歌 [Cantonese, trad.]
    呢啲唱歌 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei1 di1 sin1 hai6 coeng3 go1. [Jyutping]
    This is true singing.
    唔係 [Cantonese, trad.]
    唔系 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei5 m4 hai6 tau4 sin1 sin1 heoi3 zo2 gaa3 me1? [Jyutping]
    Didn't you just go?
  11. (Cantonese) first off
    / [Cantonese]  ―  Nei5 maai5 zo2 mei6 sin1? [Jyutping]  ―  First off, have you even bought it yet?
  12. A surname​.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (first; beforehand): In Standard Mandarin, comes before the verb; in Cantonese and Southeast Asian Mandarin, comes after the verb.
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (16)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/senH/
Pan
Wuyun
/senH/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɛnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sɛnH/
Li
Rong
/senH/
Wang
Li
/sienH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sienH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ senH ›
Old
Chinese
/*sˤər-s/
English go first

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 13467
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sɯːns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to guide
  2. earlier
  3. to surpass
  4. originally
  5. to introduce
  6. term to address older brother's wife

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 先馬先马.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
さき
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Noun[edit]

(hiragana さき, rōmaji saki)

  1. before, previous
  2. end, tip
  3. destination
  4. future
  5. sequel
  6. ahead

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(seon)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul):
    • Name (hangeul): 먼저 (revised: meonjeo, McCune-Reischauer: mŏnjŏ, Yale: mence)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tiên, ten, teng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.