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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
先-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 10 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 竹土竹山 (HGHU), four-corner 24211, composition)

  1. first, former, previous

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 124, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1349
  • Dae Jaweon: page 260, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 267, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5148

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕian⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕian⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
/ɕian²¹/
Jinan /ɕiã²¹³/
Qingdao /siã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /sian²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕiã²¹/
Xining /ɕiã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕian⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕian⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕiɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕian⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕiɛ̃⁴⁴/
Nanjing /sien³¹/
Hefei /ɕiĩ²¹/
/t͡ɕʰiĩ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ɕie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕi⁵³/
Suzhou /siɪ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ɕi³³/
Hui Shexian /se³¹/
Tunxi /siɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /siẽ³³/
Xiangtan /siẽ³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɛn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sian⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sien²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sin⁵³/
Nanning /ɬin⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sin⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sian⁵⁵/
/siŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /siŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siŋ³³/
/sõi³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sin²³/
/ti²³/
/tai²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (16)
Final:
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/sen/ /sien/ /sen/ /sen/ /sɛn/ /sien/ /sɛn/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (16)
Final:
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/senH/ /sienH/ /senH/ /senH/ /sɛnH/ /sienH/ /sɛnH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
xiān ‹ sen › /*sˤər/ first
xiàn ‹ senH › /*sˤər-s/ go first

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13458 1 /*sɯːn/
13467 1 /*sɯːns/

Adverb[edit]

  1. first, ahead of time, before, beforehand
    洗手間 [MSC, trad.]
    洗手间 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ yào xiān qù xǐshǒujiān. [Pinyin]
    I need to go to the bathroom first.
    廁所 [Cantonese, trad.]
    厕所 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Ngo5 jiu3 heoi3 ci3 so2 sin1. [Jyutping]
    I need to go to the bathroom first.
  2. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    而家 [Cantonese, trad.]
    而家 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Keoi5 fan3 dou3 ji4 gaa1 sin1 fan3 seng2 gaau3. [Jyutping]
    He slept so long that he only woke up just now.
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei5 sin1 sik6 jat1 wun2 faan6 dim2 wui5 gau3! [Jyutping]
    You ate only one bowl of food; how can that be enough!
  3. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    呢啲唱歌 [Cantonese, trad.]
    呢啲唱歌 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Ne1 di1 sin1 hai6 coeng3 go1. [Jyutping]
    This is true singing.
  4. (Cantonese) first off
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei5 maai5 zo2 mei6 sin1? [Jyutping]
    First off, have you even bought it yet?

Usage notes[edit]

  • (first; beforehand) In Mandarin, comes before the verb. In Cantonese, comes after the verb.

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さき, romaji saki)

  1. before, previous
  2. end, tip
  3. destination
  4. future
  5. sequel
  6. ahead

Derived terms[edit]

Idioms[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(seon)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: seon, McCune-Reischauer: sŏn, Yale: sen)
  • Name (hangeul): 먼저 (revised: meonjeo, McCune-Reischauer: mŏnjŏ, Yale: mence)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tiên, ten, teng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.