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U+5148, 先
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5148

[U+5147]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5149]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
先-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 10 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 竹土竹山 (HGHU), four-corner 24211, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 124, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1349
  • Dae Jaweon: page 260, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 267, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5148

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
先-oracle.svg 先-bronze.svg 先-bigseal.svg 先-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sɯːlʔ, *sɯːnʔ
*sɯːn, *sɯːns
*sɯːnʔ
*sɯːnʔ
*sɯːnʔ
*sɯːnʔ, *srin
*sɯːnʔ
*sɯːnʔ
*sɯːnʔ
*srin
*srin
*srin
*srin

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sĕng - vernacular;
  • siĕng - literary.
Note:
  • sian - literary;
  • suiⁿ/seng/sin - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕian⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕian⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
/ɕian²¹/
Jinan /ɕiã²¹³/
Qingdao /siã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /sian²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕiã²¹/
Xining /ɕiã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕian⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕian⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕiɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕian⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕiɛ̃⁴⁴/
Nanjing /sien³¹/
Hefei /ɕiĩ²¹/
/t͡ɕʰiĩ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ɕie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕi⁵³/
Suzhou /siɪ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ɕi³³/
Hui Shexian /se³¹/
Tunxi /siɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /siẽ³³/
Xiangtan /siẽ³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɛn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sian⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sien²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sin⁵³/
Nanning /ɬin⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sin⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sian⁵⁵/
/siŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /siŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siŋ³³/
/sõi³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sin²³/
/ti²³/
/tai²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (16) (16)
Final () (85) (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () IV IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sen/ /senH/
Pan
Wuyun
/sen/ /senH/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɛn/ /sɛnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sɛn/ /sɛnH/
Li
Rong
/sen/ /senH/
Wang
Li
/sien/ /sienH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sien/ /sienH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiān xiàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiān xiàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ sen › ‹ senH ›
Old
Chinese
/*sˤər/ /*sˤər-s/
English first go first

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 13458 13467
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sɯːn/ /*sɯːns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. first; ahead of time; before; beforehand
    洗手間 / 洗手间  ―  Wǒ yào xiān qù xǐshǒujiān.  ―  I need to go to the bathroom first.
    廁所 [Cantonese, trad.]
    厕所 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Ngo5 jiu3 heoi3 ci3 so2 sin1. [Jyutping]
    I need to go to the bathroom first.
  2. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    而家 [Cantonese, trad.]
    而家 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Keoi5 fan3 dou3 ji4 gaa1 sin1 fan3 seng2 gaau3. [Jyutping]
    He slept so long that he only woke up just now.
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei5 sin1 sik6 jat1 wun2 faan6 dim2 wui5 gau3! [Jyutping]
    Eating one bowl isn't enough!
    呢啲唱歌 [Cantonese, trad.]
    呢啲唱歌 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei1 di1 sin1 hai6 coeng3 go1. [Jyutping]
    This is true singing.
    唔係 [Cantonese, trad.]
    唔系 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei5 m4 hai6 tau4 sin1 sin1 heoi3 zo2 me1. [Jyutping]
    Didn't you just go?
  3. (Cantonese) first off
    / [Cantonese]  ―  Nei5 maai5 zo2 mei6 sin1? [Jyutping]  ―  First off, have you even bought it yet?

Usage notes[edit]

  • (first; beforehand) In Mandarin, comes before the verb. In Cantonese, comes after the verb.

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
さき
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さき, romaji saki)

  1. before, previous
  2. end, tip
  3. destination
  4. future
  5. sequel
  6. ahead
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(seon)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): ()
  • Name (hangeul): 먼저 (revised: meonjeo, McCune-Reischauer: mŏnjŏ, Yale: mence)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tiên, ten, teng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.