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U+59CB, 始
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-59CB

[U+59CA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+59CC]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 38, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 女戈口 (VIR), four-corner 43460, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 258, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6166
  • Dae Jaweon: page 523, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1041, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+59CB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

𠃭
𠙉

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hljɯʔ): semantic  (woman) + phonetic  (OC *l̥ʰɯː, *l'ɯː, *l'ɯː, *lɯ).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sṳ̄ - vernacular;
  • sé̤ṳ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩²¹⁴/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
    Tianjin /sz̩¹³/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Xi'an /sz̩⁵³/
    Xining /sz̩⁵³/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /sz̩⁵¹/
    Wuhan /sz̩⁴²/
    Chengdu /sz̩⁵³/
    Guiyang /sz̩⁴²/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩²¹²/
    Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰʐ̩²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /sz̩⁵³/
    Pingyao /sz̩⁵³/
    Hohhot /sz̩⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /sz̩³⁵/
    Suzhou /sz̩ʷ⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /sz̩⁵³/
    Wenzhou /sz̩³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /sz̩³⁵/
    Tunxi /ɕi³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /sz̩²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /sz̩³¹/
    Taoyuan /ʃï³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰi³⁵/
    Nanning /t͡sʰi³⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰi³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /si⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sy³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /si⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ti³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (26)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɕɨX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɕɨX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɕieX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɕɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɕiəX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɕĭəX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɕiX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shǐ
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shǐ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ syiX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l̥əʔ/
    English begin

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12291
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljɯʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to begin; to start
    2. beginning; start
    3. initial; first
    4. then; only then; only after
      Synonym: (cái)

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (shi)
    • Korean: (, si)
    • Vietnamese: thuỷ ()

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to begin; to start

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɕɨX).

    Affix[edit]

    () (shi

    1. beginning; start
    2. initial; first

    Derived terms[edit]

    See also[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɕɨX).

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 비롯할 (birothal si))
    (eumhun 비로소 (biroso si))

    1. Hanja form? of (beginning; start).
    2. Hanja form? of (initial; first).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: thủy/thuỷ[1][2][3], thỉ ((thi)(chỉ)(thiết))[2][4][3]
    : Nôm readings: thỉ[4][5], thủy/thuỷ[1]

    1. Hán tự form of thuỷ/thủy (beginning; start; initial).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]