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See also: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 𡚦, and 𠨰
U+5973, 女
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5973

[U+5972]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5974]
U+F981, 女
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F981

[U+F980]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F982]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
3 strokes
Stroke order
女-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (U+2F25, Kangxi radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 38, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 女 (V), four-corner 40400, composition𡿨(GJKV) or ⿻𡿨𠂇(HT))

  1. Kangxi radical #38, .

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

Wikidata has structured data related to:

Wikidata

  • KangXi: page 254, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6036
  • Dae Jaweon: page 516, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1023, character 23
  • Unihan data for U+5973

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
女-oracle.svg 女-bronze.svg 女-silk.svg 女-seal.svg 女-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*rnaː
*rnaː
*rnaː
*rnaː, *na
*rnaː, *naː, *naːs
*rnaː, *na
*rnaːs, *nas, *snas, *nas
*rnaːw
*rnaːw
*n̥ʰaːŋʔ, *naː
*naː
*naː, *naːʔ
*naː
*naː
*naːʔ
*naːʔ
*naːʔ, *naːs
*na
*na
*naʔ, *nas
*naʔ
*hnjas
*nja, *njas
*nja, *njaʔ, *njas
*nja, *njas
*nja
*nja
*njaʔ
*njaʔ

Pictogram (象形): a woman with breasts kneeling or standing. In modern form turned on left side: enclosed area is remnant of left breast (character's left, depicted woman's right), while right breast has disappeared. Graphically cognate to (, “mother”), which has developed similarly, but also includes dots for nipples and has retained both breasts.

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𠨰
Wikipedia has an article on:
女性

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *nja-ŋ/k (woman).

Pronunciation 2 is an exoactive derivation of pronunciation 1 (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • neoi5-2 - “daughter; girlfriend; girl”;
  • neoi5-1 - “queen”.
  • Gan
  • Note:
    • nyy3 - usual pronunciation, including “daughter”;
    • nyyn3 - “daughter”.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • Xiamen:
      • lú - more common.
    • Zhangzhou:
      • lí - more common.
    • Quanzhou:
      • lír - more common;
      • lú - colloquial variant.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ny²¹⁴/
    Harbin /ny²¹³/
    Tianjin /nuei¹³/
    /ny¹³/
    Jinan /ȵy⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /ny⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ny⁵³/
    Xi'an /ny⁵³/
    Xining /mji⁵³/
    Yinchuan /ny⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ȵy⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /ȵy⁵¹/
    Wuhan /y⁴²/
    Chengdu /ȵy⁵³/
    Guiyang /ni⁴²/
    Kunming /ni⁵³/
    Nanjing /ly²¹²/
    Hefei /zz̩ʷ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /ny⁵³/
    Pingyao /nzz̩ʷ⁵³/ ~子
    /ȵy⁵³/ ~貓
    Hohhot /ny⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵy²³/
    Suzhou /ȵy³¹/
    Hangzhou /nz̩ʷ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ȵy³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ny³⁵/
    Tunxi /ȵy²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵy⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /ȵy⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵy²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /n̩³¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋ̍³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nøy²³/
    Nanning /ny²⁴/
    Hong Kong /nøy¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lu⁵³/
    /li⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ny³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ny²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nɯŋ⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nu²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (12)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɳɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɳiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /niɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɳɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /niɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /nĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ni̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nrjoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nraʔ/
    English female

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 9616
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*naʔ/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. woman
      Antonyms: (nán)
        ―  rén  ―  woman
        ―  de  ―  woman; female
    2. (for people) female
      ,
      演員 / 演员  ―  yī ge yǎnyuán  ―  an actress
      士兵 / 士兵  ―  yī ge shìbīng  ―  a female soldier
    3. daughter (Classifier: c;  c)
        ―    ―  second daughter
      / [Cantonese]  ―  Keoi5 hai6 ngo5 go3 neoi5-2. [Jyutping]  ―  She's my daughter.
    4. (Cantonese) girl; young female (Classifier: c;  c)
      / [Cantonese]  ―  leng3 neoi5-2 [Jyutping]  ―  pretty girl
    5. (Cantonese, slang) girlfriend (Classifier: c)
    6. (Cantonese, card games) queen (Classifier: c;  c)
    7. (astronomy) the Girl (a Chinese constellation near Aquarius, 10th of the Twenty-Eight Mansions and part of the Black Turtle)
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of 女兒 (“daughter”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 女兒
    Mandarin Beijing 女兒, 女花兒, 閨女, 姑娘, 丫頭
    Taiwan 女兒
    Tianjin 女兒, 閨女
    Harbin 女兒, 姑娘, 閨女, 閨娘, 丫頭
    Shenyang 姑娘, 丫頭
    Hailar 女兒
    Bayanhot 丫頭
    Jinan 閨女
    Muping 閨娘, 閨娘子, 女兒
    Jiedian 女子
    Xi'an , 女兒
    Qingdao 閨女
    Zhengzhou 閨女,
    Xining 姑娘, 丫頭
    Xuzhou 女兒, 閨女
    Yinchuan 女兒, 丫頭
    Lanzhou 女兒
    Ürümqi 女兒, 丫頭
    Wuhan 姑娘, 丫頭
    Huanggang 女兒
    Chengdu 女兒, , 姑娘兒
    Guiyang 姑娘, 女娃娃, 女娃兒, 幺女, 幺姑娘, 小丫頭, 小姑娘
    Guilin 女兒
    Liuzhou , 丫頭
    Kunming 囡兒, 姑娘
    Yangzhou 女兒, 姑娘
    Nanjing 女兒, 姑娘
    Hefei 女兒, 丫頭
    Nantong 丫頭
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong , 女女
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) , 妹仔
    Foshan
    Shunde
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Dongguan
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang 桓仔
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Nanning
    Wuzhou
    Yulin
    Hepu
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang , 姑娘
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang , 妹仔
    Hakka Meixian 妹仔
    Xingning 妹哩
    Huidong 妹仔
    Qujiang 妹子
    Xiaosanjiang 妹仔
    Luchuan
    Changting 妹子
    Pingyu 妹子
    Wuping 妹子
    Liancheng 妹子娘
    Ninghua
    Yudu , 女子
    Ruijin , 女子
    Shicheng
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 妹仔, 妹子
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 妹仔, 妹子
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 妹仔, 妹子
    Dongshi (Dabu) , 妹子
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 妹仔, 妹子
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿女
    Hong Kong 妹子
    Sabah 妹子, 妹哩
    Senai 妹子
    Singkawang 妹子
    Huizhou Jixi
    Shexian
    Tunxi , 囡囝
    Jin Taiyuan 閨女, 妮子
    Xinzhou 閨女
    Hohhot 閨女, 女子
    Min Bei Jian'ou 阿娘囝
    Dikou 娘囝
    Songxi 阿娘囝
    Zhenghe 阿娘囝
    Zhenqian 娘囝
    Jianyang 阿娘囝
    Wuyishan 阿娘囝
    Shibei 阿娘囝
    Min Dong Fuzhou 諸娘囝
    Changle 諸娘囝
    Fuqing 諸娘囝
    Yongtai 諸娘囝
    Gutian 諸娘囝
    Fu'an 諸娘囝
    Ningde 諸母囝
    Shouning 諸母囝
    Zhouning 諸娘囝
    Fuding 諸母囝
    Matsu 諸娘囝
    Min Nan Xiamen 查某囝, 查某仔
    Quanzhou 查某仔
    Zhangzhou 查某仔
    Taipei 查某囝
    Kaohsiung 查某囡仔, 查某囝
    Tainan 查某囝
    Taichung 查某囝
    Wuqi 查某囝
    Hsinchu 查某囝
    Taitung 查某囝
    Lukang 查某囝
    Sanxia 查某囝
    Yilan 查某囝
    Kinmen 查某囡仔
    Magong 查某囝
    Penang 查某囝, 查某仔
    Singapore 查某囝
    Philippines (Manila) 查某仔
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou 走囝
    Shantou 走囝
    Haifeng 查某囝
    Johor Bahru 走囝
    Wenchang 查某囝
    Haikou 查某囝, 查囝
    Puxian Min Putian 嬸娘囝
    Xianyou 子囝
    Pinghua Nanning
    Guilin
    Wu Shanghai 囡兒, dated, 囡兒大細 dated
    Suzhou 囡兒
    Wuxi 囡兒
    Hangzhou 女兒
    Wenzhou 奶兒
    Chongming 丫頭
    Danyang 女兒
    Jinhua 囡兒, , 女兒
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha , 妹子
    Shuangfeng
    Xiangtan , 妹唧
    Loudi
    Quanzhou 女崽
    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (12)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɳɨʌH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɳiɔH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /niɔH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɳɨə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /niɔH/
    Wang
    Li
    /nĭoH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ni̯woH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nrjoH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nraʔ-s/
    English give as a wife

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 9618
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nas/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. to give one's daughter in marriage; to give as wife

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“you”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. woman
    2. daughter

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    おんな
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨womi1na⟩ → */womʲina//womʉna//wonːa//onːa/

    Shift from Old Japanese wominaomina (see below).

    Now one of the standard Japanese words for "a woman".

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana おんな, rōmaji onna, historical hiragana をんな)

    1. a woman
      • 1999 July 5, “ざんしゅじょ [The Beheading Beauty]”, in BOOSTER 3 (in Japanese), Konami:
        その () (ぼう)とはうらはらに、カタナで (かず) (おお)くの (くち)をはねてきた (おんな)
        Sono bibō to wa urahara ni, katana de kazuōku no kuchi o hanetekita onna.
        A lady who has decapitated a great many with her katana, which is in stark contrast to her beautiful appearance.
      Antonym: (otoko)
    2. a wife
      Synonyms: (tsuma), 女房 (nyōbō)
    3. a mistress, concubine
      Synonyms: 愛人 (aijin), 情婦 (jōfu), (mekake)
    4. a maid
      Synonyms: 下女 (gejo), 女中 (jochū)
    5. a prostitute
      Synonyms: 淫売婦 (inbaifu), 女郎 (jorō), 売春婦 (baishunfu), 遊女 (yūjo)
    6. a woman's appearance or quality
    7. a feminine object
    8. the object in a pairing which is smaller, gentler, etc. than the other
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    おみな
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨womi1na⟩ → */womʲina//omina/

    From Old Japanese.[3]

    The initial /wo/ expressed "small, youth" and contrasted with /o/ "grown, old" (as in (omina, old woman)), while the medial /mi/ is cognate with (me, female, woman, see below). According to Frellesvig (2010), proto-Japonic /e/ became Old Japanese [je] in final position and [i] elsewhere; analogous with PJ /o/, which became OJ [wo] in final position and [u] elsewhere (though PJ /i/ and /u/ also existed, confer Old Japanese 's two readings /po/ & /pu/ in Western & Eastern Old Japanese, respectively (Vovin, 2017)).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana おみな, rōmaji omina, historical hiragana をみな)

    1. (archaic) a young woman
    2. (archaic) a woman
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana おみな, rōmaji Omina, historical hiragana をみな)

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨me1 → */mʲe//me/

    From Old Japanese.[4]

    Appears to be distinct from (⟨me2 → me, eye).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji me)

    1. a woman
      Antonym: (o)
    2. a wife
      • c. 890, Taketori Monogatari (page 3)[5]
        ... () (をんな)にあづけてやしなはす。
        ...me no onna ni azukete yashinawasu.
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      Synonym: (tsuma)
      Antonym: (o)
    3. a female
      Antonym: , , (o)
    Usage notes[edit]

    Used more in compounds than on its own.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    ⟨womi1na⟩ → */womʲina//womʉna//woũna//woːna//oːna/

    Variant shift from Old Japanese wominaomina (see above).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana おうな, rōmaji ōna, historical hiragana をうな)

    1. (archaic) a young woman

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    /wonːa//wona//ona/

    Shift from onna (see above).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana おな, rōmaji ona, historical hiragana をな)

    1. (obsolete) a young woman

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    /wona//wonaː//onaː/

    Long-pronounced form of ona (see above).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana おなあ, rōmaji onā, historical hiragana をなあ)

    1. (obsolete) a young woman

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    じょ
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    /dɨo//d͡ʑo/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɳɨʌX, ɳɨʌH).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana じょ, rōmaji jo, historical hiragana ぢよ)

    1. a woman, especially a actress or prostitute

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana じょ, rōmaji Jo, historical hiragana ぢよ)

    1. (Chinese astronomy) the Girl constellation, one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions
      Synonyms: うるき星 (Urukiboshi), 女宿 (Joshuku)

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana じょ, rōmaji -jo, historical hiragana ぢよ)

    1. (historical) suffixed to names of female figures in the Edo period

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ womina at OxFord-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese
    4. ^ mye at OxFord-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese
    5. ^ Horiuchi, Hideaki; Ken Akiyama (1997) Taketori Monogatari, Ise Monogatari, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 계집 (gyejip nyeo), South Korea 계집 (gyejip yeo))

    1. Hanja form? of (female; woman).

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: nữ ((ni)(lữ)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], nhữ ((nhẫn)(dữ)(thiết))[1][5]
    : Nôm readings: nợ[1][2][3][6][4][5][7], nữa[1][2][3][4][5][7], nữ[1][2][6][4][7], nỡ[1][2][3][6], nớ[3][6][4][5], nhỡ[1][3][6], lỡ[2][3][6], nửa[1][3], nhớ[1], nự[3]

    1. Hán tự form of nữ (female).
    2. Hán tự form of nhữ ((obsolete) you).
    3. Nôm form of nợ (debt; to owe).
    4. Nôm form of nữa (more; further).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]