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See also: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 𡚦, and 𠨰
U+5973, 女
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5973

[U+5972]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5974]
U+2F25, ⼥
KANGXI RADICAL WOMAN

[U+2F24]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F26]
U+F981, 女
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F981

[U+F980]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F982]
U+329B, ㊛
CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH FEMALE

[U+329A]
Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
[U+329C]

Translingual

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Stroke order
3 strokes
Stroke order

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 38, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input (V), four-corner 40400, composition 𡿨(GJKV) or 𡿨𠂇(HT))

  1. Kangxi radical #38, .

Derived characters

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Descendants

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 254, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6036
  • Dae Jaweon: page 516, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1023, character 23
  • Unihan data for U+5973

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Pictogram (象形) : a woman with breasts kneeling or standing. In modern form turned on left side: enclosed area is remnant of left breast (character's left, depicted woman's right), while right breast has disappeared. Graphically cognate to (, “mother”), which has developed similarly, but also includes dots for nipples and has retained both breasts. Compare Egyptian 𓁐.

Etymology 1

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𠨰
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
女性

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *nja-ŋ/k (woman). Compare Tibetan ཉག་མོ (nyag mo, woman) (Hill, 2019).

Pronunciation 2 is an exoactive derivation of pronunciation 1 (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • neoi5-2 - “daughter; girlfriend; girl”;
  • neoi5-1 - “queen”.
Note:
  • nyy3 - usual pronunciation, including “daughter”;
  • nyyn3 - “daughter”.
Note:
  • Xiamen:
    • lú - more common.
  • Zhangzhou:
    • lí - more common.
  • Quanzhou:
    • lír - more common;
    • lú - colloquial variant.
Note:
  • neng2 - vernacular;
  • ni2 - colloquial.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ny²¹⁴/
Harbin /ny²¹³/
Tianjin /nuei¹³/
/ny¹³/
Jinan /ȵy⁵⁵/
Qingdao /ny⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ny⁵³/
Xi'an /ny⁵³/
Xining /mji⁵³/
Yinchuan /ny⁵³/
Lanzhou /ȵy⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ȵy⁵¹/
Wuhan /y⁴²/
Chengdu /ȵy⁵³/
Guiyang /ni⁴²/
Kunming /ni⁵³/
Nanjing /ly²¹²/
Hefei /zz̩ʷ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /ny⁵³/
Pingyao /nzz̩ʷ⁵³/ ~子
/ȵy⁵³/ ~貓
Hohhot /ny⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ȵy²³/
Suzhou /ȵy³¹/
Hangzhou /nz̩ʷ⁵³/
Wenzhou /ȵy³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ny³⁵/
Tunxi /ȵy²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵy⁴¹/
Xiangtan /ȵy⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵy²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /n̩³¹/
Taoyuan /ŋ̍³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nøy²³/
Nanning /ny²⁴/
Hong Kong /nøy¹³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /lu⁵³/
/li⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ny³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ny²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /nɯŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /nu²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (12)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter nrjoX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɳɨʌX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɳiɔX/
Shao
Rongfen
/niɔX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɳɨə̆X/
Li
Rong
/niɔX/
Wang
Li
/nĭoX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ni̯woX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
neoi5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ nrjoX ›
Old
Chinese
/*nraʔ/
English female

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9616
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*naʔ/
Definitions
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  1. woman; (only of humans in Standard Chinese) female
      ―  rén  ―  woman
      ―  de  ―  woman; female
    演員演员  ―  yī ge yǎnyuán  ―  an actress
    士兵士兵  ―  yī ge shìbīng  ―  a female soldier
    請問衛生間哪兒 [MSC, trad.]
    请问卫生间哪儿 [MSC, simp.]
    Qǐngwèn wèishēngjiān zài nǎr? [Pinyin]
    Excuse me, where is the ladies' lavatory?; Excuse me, where is the women's' bathroom?
    Coordinate term: (nán)
    See also: ,
  2. daughter (Classifier: c;  c)
      ―  cì'  ―  second daughter
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 hai6 ngo5 go3 neoi5-2 [Jyutping]
    She's my daughter.
  3. (Cantonese) girl; young female (Classifier: c;  c)
    [Cantonese]  ―  leng3 neoi5-2 [Jyutping]  ―  pretty girl
  4. (Cantonese, Teochew, slang) girlfriend (Classifier: c;  mn-t)
  5. (Cantonese, card games) queen (Classifier: c;  c)
  6. (astronomy) the Girl (a Chinese constellation near Aquarius, 10th of the Twenty-Eight Mansions and part of the Black Turtle)
Synonyms
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Compounds
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Descendants
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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (じょ) (jo)
  • Korean: 여(女) (yeo)
  • Vietnamese: nữ ()

Pronunciation 2

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Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (12)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter nrjoH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɳɨʌH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɳiɔH/
Shao
Rongfen
/niɔH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɳɨə̆H/
Li
Rong
/niɔH/
Wang
Li
/nĭoH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ni̯woH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
neoi6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ nrjoH ›
Old
Chinese
/*nraʔ-s/
English give as a wife

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 9618
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nas/
Definitions
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  1. to give one's daughter in marriage; to give as wife

Etymology 2

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“you”).
(This character is a variant form of ).

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(First grade kyōiku kanji)

  1. woman
  2. daughter

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
おんな
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

⟨womi1na⟩ → */womʲina//womʉna//wonːa//onːa/

Shift from Old Japanese wominaomina. See the (omina) entry for further details.

Now one of the standard Japanese words for "a woman".

Pronunciation

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  • (Tokyo) んな [òńnáꜜ] (Odaka – [3])[1][2]
  • IPA(key): [õ̞nːa̠]
  • Audio:(file)

Noun

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(おんな) (onnaをんな (wonna)?

  1. a female person
    Antonym: (otoko)
  2. (specifically) a woman, an adult female
    Antonym: (otoko)
  3. a wife
    Synonyms: (tsuma), 女房 (nyōbō)
  4. a mistress, concubine
    Synonyms: 愛人 (aijin), 情婦 (jōfu), (mekake)
  5. a maid
    Synonyms: 下女 (gejo), 女中 (jochū)
  6. a prostitute
    Synonyms: 淫売婦 (inbaifu), 女郎 (jorō), 売春婦 (baishunfu), 遊女 (yūjo)
  7. a woman's appearance or quality
  8. a feminine object
  9. the object in a pairing which is smaller, gentler, etc. than the other
  10. (vulgar) girlfriend
    (ひと)(おんな)()()
    Hito no onna ni te o dasuna!
    Don't you fuckin' dare touch someone else's girl!
Derived terms
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Idioms
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Proverbs
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
おみな
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

⟨womi1na⟩ → */womʲina//omina/

From Old Japanese.[3]

The initial /wo/ expressed "small, youth" and contrasted with /o/ "grown, old" (as in (omina, old woman)), while the medial /mi/ is cognate with (me, female, woman, see below). According to Frellesvig (2010), proto-Japonic /e/ became Old Japanese [je] in final position and [i] elsewhere; analogous with PJ /o/, which became OJ [wo] in final position and [u] elsewhere (though PJ /i/ and /u/ also existed, compare Old Japanese 's two readings /po/ & /pu/ in Western & Eastern Old Japanese, respectively (Vovin, 2017)).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(おみな) (ominaをみな (womina)?

  1. (archaic) a young woman
  2. (archaic) a woman
Derived terms
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Proper noun

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(おみな) (Ominaをみな (womina)?

  1. a female given name

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

⟨me1 → */mʲe//me/

From Old Japanese,[4] from Proto-Japonic *mia.

Appears to be distinct from (⟨me2 → me, eye).

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (me

  1. a woman
    Antonym: (o)
    ()(がみ)
    megami
    goddess
  2. a wife
    • c. 890, Taketori Monogatari (page 3)[5]
      ...()(をんな)にあづけてやしなはす。
      ...me no onna ni azukete yashinawasu.
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonym: (tsuma)
    Antonym: (o)
  3. a female
    Antonym: , , (o)
Usage notes
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  • Used more in compounds than on its own.
Derived terms
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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
おうな
Grade: 1
kun'yomi
Alternative spelling

⟨womi1na⟩ → */womʲina//womʉna//woũna//woːna//oːna/

Variant shift from Old Japanese wominaomina (see above).

Noun

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(おうな) (ōnaをうな (wouna)?

  1. (archaic) a young woman

Etymology 5

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Kanji in this term
おな
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/wonːa//wona//ona/

Shift from onna (see above).

Noun

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(おな) (onaをな (wona)?

  1. (obsolete) a young woman

Etymology 6

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Kanji in this term
おなあ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/wona//wonaː//onaː/

Long-pronounced form of ona (see above).

Noun

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(おなあ) (onāをなあ (wonaa)?

  1. (obsolete) a young woman

Etymology 7

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Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
じょ
Grade: 1
kan'on

/dɨo//d͡ʑo/

From Middle Chinese (MC nrjoX|nrjoH).

Noun

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(じょ) (joぢよ (dyo)?

  1. a woman, especially an actress or a prostitute

Proper noun

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(じょ) (Joぢよ (dyo)?

  1. (Chinese astronomy) the Girl constellation, one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions
    Synonyms: うるき星 (Urukiboshi), 女宿 (Joshuku)

Suffix

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(じょ) (-joぢよ (dyo)?

  1. (historical) suffixed to names of female figures in the Edo period

See also

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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  3. ^ womina at OxFord-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese
  4. ^ Frellesvig, Bjarke, Stephen Wright Horn, et al. (eds.) (2023) “Old Japanese mye”, in Oxford-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese[1]
  5. ^ Horiuchi, Hideaki with Ken Akiyama (1997) Taketori Monogatari, Ise Monogatari, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN

Korean

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource


Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC nrjoX|nrjoH). Recorded as Middle Korean (nye) (Yale: nye) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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(eumhun 계집 (gyejip nyeo), word-initial (South Korea) 계집 (gyejip yeo))

  1. Hanja form? of / (female; woman).

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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From Middle Chinese / (MC nyoX).

Hanja

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(eumhun (neo yeo))

  1. (literary Chinese) Hanja form? of (you).

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: nữ ((ni)(lữ)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], nhữ ((nhẫn)(dữ)(thiết))[1][5]
: Nôm readings: nợ[1][2][3][6][4][5][7], nữa[1][2][3][4][5][7], nữ[1][2][6][4][7], nỡ[1][2][3][6], nớ[3][6][4][5], nhỡ[1][3][6], lỡ[2][3][6], nửa[1][3], nhớ[1], nự[3]

  1. chữ Hán form of nữ (female).
  2. Nôm form of nhớ (to remember, to miss).
  3. Nôm form of nỡ (to be willing).
  4. Nôm form of nữa (furthermore).
  5. Nôm form of nợ (to owe; debt).
  6. Nôm form of nửa (half).

Compounds

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References

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