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See also: and
U+5A18, 娘
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5A18

[U+5A17]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5A19]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 38, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 女戈日女 (VIAV), four-corner 43432, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 262, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6304
  • Dae Jaweon: page 529, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1054, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5A18

Chinese[edit]

trad. /
simp.
: “mother”

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*raːl, *raːlʔ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raːŋs
*raːŋ, *raŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raŋ, *raŋs
*raːŋ, *raːŋs
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raːŋs
*raːŋ, *raŋs
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raːŋʔ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋs
*raːŋs
*naŋ
*raŋ
*raŋ
*raŋs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *naŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *raŋ).

Etymology[edit]

Not attested in pre-Tang texts. It may ultimately have been a fusion of 女郎 (MC ɳɨʌX lɑŋ, “lady”) (Coblin, 1994).

Alternatively, it may be a loan from Proto-Turkic *ana ~ *eńe (mother); compare Turkish ana and Uyghur ئانا(ana) (Vovin and McCraw, 2011).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: nion3 - used in words meaning “maternal grandmother”, e.g. 娘娘, 姥娘.
Note:
  • nòng - vernacular;
  • niòng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • niû/niô͘/niâu, niâ - vernacular;
    • liông/liâng - literary.
    Note:
    • nio5/niê5 - vernacular;
    • niang5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /niɑŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /niaŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /niɑŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ȵiaŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /niaŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /niaŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /niaŋ²⁴/
    Xining /ȵiɔ̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /niɑŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ȵiɑ̃⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ȵiɑŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /niaŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /ȵiaŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /niaŋ²¹/
    Kunming /niã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /liaŋ²⁴/ 爹~
    /liaŋ³¹/ 姑姑
    Hefei /liɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /niɒ̃¹¹/ ~家
    /niɒ̃⁴⁵/ 姥姥
    Pingyao /ȵiɑŋ¹³/
    /ȵyə¹³/ ~~廟
    Hohhot /niɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵiã²³/
    Suzhou /ȵiã¹³/
    Hangzhou /ȵiɑŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
    Hui Shexian /nia⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵiau⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵian¹³/
    Xiangtan /ȵian¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiɔŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋioŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋioŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nœŋ²¹/
    Nanning /nɛŋ⁵⁵/
    /nœŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /nœŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liɔŋ³⁵/
    /niu³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nuoŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niɔŋ³³/
    /niɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /niõ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /niaŋ³¹/
    /nio³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (12)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɳɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɳiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /niɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɳɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /niaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /nĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ni̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    niáng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8045
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*naŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. woman, especially a young girl
        ―  niang  ―  girl
    2. (colloquial) mother; ma
    3. wife of another person
    4. elderly lady
    5. (religion) "The Lady", an epithet of the Fujianese sea goddess Mazu (媽祖妈祖).
    6. girly; effeminate; feminine
    7. () (phonology) a Middle Chinese initial and the 'Phags-pa script letter (ny-)

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
    Mandarin Beijing 媽媽
    Taiwan 媽媽
    Tianjin 媽媽
    Harbin 媽媽
    Shenyang 媽媽
    Jinan 媽媽
    Muping
    Luoyang 媽兒
    Jiedian
    Ronghe
    Xi'an
    Xining 阿媽媽媽姆媽
    Xuzhou 媽媽大兒
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi 媽媽阿娘 Hui阿娘子 used with minorities
    Wuhan 姆媽媽媽
    Chengdu 媽媽
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou 阿媽
    Kunming
    Yangzhou 媽媽姆媽
    Nanjing 姆媽
    Hefei 媽爺
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿媽媽媽
    Hong Kong 媽咪阿媽媽媽
    Dongguan 阿媽阿奶阿姐媽媽 childish媽咪 childish
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 阿媽阿奶
    Taishan
    Yangjiang 阿媽阿娘
    Xinyi 阿媽
    Nanning 媽媽阿媽
    Kuala Lumpur 阿媽媽咪
    Gan Nanchang 姆媽
    Lichuan 姆媽
    Pingxiang 姆媽
    Hakka Meixian 阿姆阿嫲
    Xingning 阿媽
    Qujiang 阿姆
    Xiaosanjiang 阿姆阿嬸
    Changting 姆媽姆娓
    Pingyu
    Wuping 姆姆依呀
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 姆媽
    Yudu 媽媽
    Ruijin 姆媽
    Shicheng 姆媽
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿姆
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿姆姆媽
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿姆
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿姆
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 阿姆
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿依
    Hong Kong 阿媽
    Sabah 阿姆
    Senai 阿媽
    Singkawang 阿姆
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou 波哇波波呀呀波呀
    Min Bei Jian'ou 依呀媽媽
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依媽依奶
    Fuqing 依奶媽媽依娜
    Matsu 依奶
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿母阿母仔母仔阿媽阿娘
    Quanzhou 阿母母仔阿娘
    Zhangzhou 阿母母仔
    Taipei 阿母阿娘媽媽
    Kaohsiung 卡桑阿母仔
    Tainan 歐卡桑阿母俺娘仔娘嬭
    Taichung 媽媽阿母
    Hsinchu 媽媽阿娘阿母
    Lukang 阿母阿娘姨仔
    Sanxia 阿母阿娘姨仔
    Yilan 阿母阿娘
    Kinmen 俺娘仔
    Magong 阿母
    Penang 阿母阿媽媽媽
    Singapore 阿母
    Chaozhou 阿媽阿娘阿姈
    Haifeng 媽媽
    Johor Bahru 阿媽媽媽
    Haikou 阿媽阿姐阿娘 dated阿嫂 dated
    Leizhou dated
    Pinghua Nanning 阿媼 dated
    Wu Shanghai 媽媽姆媽
    Suzhou 姆媽
    Hangzhou 姆媽媽媽
    Wenzhou 阿媽阿奶
    Chongming 姆媽
    Danyang
    Jinhua 姆媽
    Ningbo 阿姆姆媽
    Xiang Changsha 媽媽姆媽娘老子
    Shuangfeng 姆媽
    Loudi 依爺姆媽娘老子
    Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (non-face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
    Mandarin Beijing 媽媽
    Taiwan 媽媽
    Tianjin 媽媽
    Harbin 媽媽
    Shenyang 媽媽
    Jinan 媽媽
    Muping
    Jiedian
    Ronghe
    Xi'an
    Xining 阿媽媽媽姆媽
    Xuzhou 媽媽大兒
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou 老媽
    Ürümqi 老娘
    Wuhan 姆媽媽媽老娘黎山老 slang孟子見 dated slang
    Chengdu 媽媽
    Guiyang 老媽 humorous
    Liuzhou 阿媽娘老老媽子
    Kunming 媽媽
    Yangzhou 媽媽姆媽老娘
    Nanjing 姆媽
    Hefei 媽爺
    Nantong 娘嬭
    Cantonese Guangzhou 老母
    Hong Kong 老母老媽子阿媽媽咪
    Dongguan 阿媽阿奶阿姐老母老乸 Changping媽媽 childish媽咪 childish
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 老母阿奶
    Taishan
    Yunfu 老母
    Yangjiang 阿奶
    Xinyi 老母
    Nanning 老乸
    Kuala Lumpur 老媽子
    Gan Nanchang 姆媽
    Lichuan 家母
    Pingxiang 姆媽娘老子
    Hakka Meixian 哀仔
    Xingning 哀哩阿媽
    Huidong 阿姆
    Qujiang 哀子
    Xiaosanjiang 阿姆
    Changting 哀哩
    Pingyu 哀子
    Wuping 哀哩
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 姆媽
    Ruijin 乳子
    Shicheng
    Shangyou 姐佬
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 哀仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 哀仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 哀仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 哀仔
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong 阿姆
    Senai 吾媽
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan 媽媽
    Xinzhou 波波
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 娘嬭
    Fuqing 娘嬭
    Matsu 娘嬭
    Min Nan Xiamen 老母娘嬭阿娘
    Quanzhou 老母阿娘
    Zhangzhou 老母娘嬭
    Taipei 老母
    Kaohsiung 老母
    Tainan 老母
    Taichung 老母媽媽
    Hsinchu 老母
    Lukang 老母
    Sanxia 老母
    Yilan 老母
    Kinmen 老母俺母
    Magong 老母
    Penang 老母
    Singapore 老母
    Chaozhou 阿嬡
    Shantou
    Haifeng 媽媽
    Johor Bahru 我媽
    Haikou
    Leizhou 尼母尼姨 dated
    Pinghua Nanning 老娘阿媼 dated
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou 姆媽
    Hangzhou 姆媽媽媽
    Wenzhou 阿媽阿奶
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Ningbo 阿娘
    Xiang Changsha 媽媽姆媽娘老子
    Shuangfeng 姆媽
    Loudi 依爺姆媽娘老子

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:

    • Khmer: នាង (niəng, young woman; girl)
    • Lao: ນາງ (nāng, woman; girl; lady; Mrs.)
    • Thai: นาง (naang, woman; wife; female lover)
    • Vietnamese: nàng (lady; young woman; she)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    むすめ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Compound of 生す (musu, to beget) +‎ (me, female).[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (counter , hiragana むすめ, rōmaji musume)

    1. (humble) a daughter
      • 2007 October 20, Hiroshi, Izawa; Kotaro, Yamada, “さいしゅう それぞれのみち [Final Chapter: Epilog]”, in ファイアーエムブレム 覇者の剣 [Fire Emblem: Sword of Champions], volume 5 (fiction, in Japanese), Jump Remix edition, Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 352:
         (おう) (こく)の『 (むすめ)』セシリア
        Ōkoku no ‘Musume’ Seshiria
        Cecilia, ‘Daughter’ of the Kingdom
    Synonyms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Alternative spelling. See (ko).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ko)

    1. Alternative spelling of (girl)
      • 1996 February 20 [Feb 15 1988], Adachi, Mitsuru, “テイク・オフ [Take Off]”, in SHORT PROGRAMショート・プログラム [SHORT PROGRAM], volume 1 (fiction, in Japanese), 25th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 107:
         () (ぶん) () (ぶん) (こう) (どう) (じょう) (けん)をつけちゃうんだよ、この ()—— (たと)えば、 (まい) (とし) (はつ) (ゆき) ()るまでモチは ()わないとか、 (れい) (きゅう) (しゃ) (とお)るまで (みち) (わた)らないとか、ネコがあくびするまでコタツを ()ないとか。
        Jibun de jibun no kōdō ni jōken o tsukechaun da yo, kono ko—— Tatoeba, maitoshi hatsuyuki ga furu made mochi wa kuwanai toka, reikyūsha ga tōru made michi o wataranai toka, neko ga akubisuru made kotatsu o denai toka.
        This girl, I’m telling you, she sets terms for every of her own actions—— Like, not eating mochi until the first snowfall of each year, not crossing the street until the hearse passes by, or not leaving the kotatsu until her cat yawns.
      • 2000 January 20 [Nov 20 1982], Tezuka, Osamu, “第3話 スタ一誕生 [Chapter 3: Birth of a Star]”, in ブラック・ジャック [Black Jack], volume 11 (fiction, in Japanese), 8th edition, Tokyo: Hakusensha, →ISBN, page 62:
        そのはもう 魅力的な子だった
        Sono ko wa mō SHINDA Miryokuteki na ko datta
        That girl is already DEAD. She was very attractive.
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (nang/rang) (hangeul 낭/랑)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nương, nàng, nường)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.