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U+5A18, 娘
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5A18

[U+5A17]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5A19]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 38 +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 女戈日女 (VIAV), four-corner 43432, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 262, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6304
  • Dae Jaweon: page 529, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1054, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5A18

Chinese[edit]

trad. /
simp.
: “mother”

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*raːl, *raːlʔ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raːŋs
*raːŋ, *raŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raŋ, *raŋs
*raːŋ, *raːŋs
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raːŋs
*raːŋ, *raŋs
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ, *raːŋʔ
*raːŋ
*raːŋ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋʔ
*raːŋs
*raːŋs
*naŋ
*raŋ
*raŋ
*raŋs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *naŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *raŋ).

Etymology[edit]

This syllable was not attested in pre-Tang texts. It may ultimately have been a fusion of 女郎 (MC ɳɨʌX lɑŋ, “lady”) (Coblin, 1994: 389).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • liông/liâng - literary;
  • niû/niô͘/niâ - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /niɑŋ³⁵/
Harbin /niaŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /niɑŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ȵiaŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /niaŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /niaŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /niaŋ²⁴/
Xining /ȵiɔ̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /niɑŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ȵiɑ̃⁵³/
Ürümqi /ȵiɑŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /niaŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵiaŋ³¹/
Guiyang /niaŋ²¹/
Kunming /niã̠³¹/
Nanjing /liaŋ²⁴/ 爹~
/liaŋ³¹/ 姑姑
Hefei /liɑ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /niɒ̃¹¹/ ~家
/niɒ̃⁴⁵/ 姥姥
Pingyao /ȵiɑŋ¹³/
/ȵyə¹³/ ~~廟
Hohhot /niɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiã²³/
Suzhou /ȵiã¹³/
Hangzhou /ȵiɑŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /nia⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵiau⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ȵian¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵian¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɔŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋioŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋioŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nœŋ²¹/
Nanning /nɛŋ⁵⁵/
/nœŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /nœŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liɔŋ³⁵/
/niu³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nuoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niɔŋ³³/
/niɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /niõ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /niaŋ³¹/
/nio³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (12)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɳɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɳiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/niɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɳɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/niaŋ/
Wang
Li
/nĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ni̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
niáng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8045
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*naŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. woman, especially a young girl
      ―  niang  ―  girl
  2. (colloquial) mother; ma
  3. wife of another person
  4. elderly lady
  5. (religion) "The Lady", an epithet of the Fujianese sea goddess Mazu (媽祖妈祖).

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (face-to-face)”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
Mandarin Beijing 媽媽
Taiwan 媽媽
Tianjin 媽媽
Harbin 媽媽
Shenyang 媽媽
Jinan 媽媽
Muping
Luoyang 媽兒
Jiedian
Ronghe
Xi'an
Xining 阿媽媽媽姆媽
Xuzhou 媽媽大兒
Yinchuan
Lanzhou
Ürümqi 媽媽阿娘 Hui阿娘子 used with minorities
Wuhan 姆媽媽媽
Chengdu 媽媽
Guiyang
Liuzhou 阿媽
Kunming
Yangzhou 媽媽姆媽
Nanjing 姆媽
Hefei 媽爺
Cantonese Guangzhou 阿媽媽媽
Hong Kong 媽咪阿媽媽媽
Dongguan 阿媽阿奶阿姐媽媽 childish媽咪 childish
Hong Kong (Weitou) 阿媽阿奶
Taishan
Yangjiang 阿媽阿娘
Xinyi 阿媽
Nanning 媽媽阿媽
Kuala Lumpur 阿媽媽咪
Gan Nanchang 姆媽
Lichuan 姆媽
Pingxiang 姆媽
Hakka Meixian 阿姆阿嫲
Xingning 阿媽
Qujiang 阿姆
Xiaosanjiang 阿姆阿嬸
Changting 姆媽姆娓
Pingyu
Wuping 姆姆依呀
Liancheng
Ninghua 姆媽
Yudu 媽媽
Ruijin 姆媽
Shicheng 姆媽
Shangyou
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿姆
Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿姆姆媽
Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿姆
Dongshi (Dabu) 阿姆
Zhuolan (Raoping) 阿姆
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿依
Hong Kong 阿媽
Sabah 阿姆
Senai 阿媽
Singkawang 阿姆
Huizhou Jixi
Jin Taiyuan
Xinzhou 波哇波波呀呀波呀
Min Bei Jian'ou 依呀媽媽
Min Dong Fuzhou 依媽依奶
Fuqing 依奶媽媽依娜
Matsu 依奶
Min Nan Xiamen 阿母阿母仔母仔阿媽阿娘
Quanzhou 阿母母仔阿娘
Zhangzhou 阿母母仔
Taipei 阿母阿娘媽媽
Kaohsiung 卡桑阿母仔
Tainan 歐卡桑阿母俺娘仔娘嬭
Taichung 媽媽阿母
Hsinchu 媽媽阿娘阿母
Lukang 阿母阿娘姨仔
Sanxia 阿母阿娘姨仔
Yilan 阿母阿娘
Kinmen 俺娘仔
Magong 阿母
Penang 阿母阿媽媽媽
Singapore 阿母
Chaozhou 阿媽阿娘阿姈
Haifeng 媽媽
Johor Bahru 阿媽媽媽
Haikou 阿媽阿姐阿娘 dated阿嫂 dated
Leizhou dated
Pinghua Nanning 阿媼 dated
Wu Shanghai 媽媽姆媽
Suzhou 姆媽
Hangzhou 姆媽媽媽
Wenzhou 阿媽阿奶
Chongming 姆媽
Danyang
Jinhua 姆媽
Ningbo 阿姆姆媽
Xiang Changsha 媽媽姆媽娘老子
Shuangfeng 姆媽
Loudi 依爺姆媽娘老子
Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (non-face-to-face)”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
Mandarin Beijing 媽媽
Taiwan 媽媽
Tianjin 媽媽
Harbin 媽媽
Shenyang 媽媽
Jinan 媽媽
Muping
Jiedian
Ronghe
Xi'an
Xining 阿媽媽媽姆媽
Xuzhou 媽媽大兒
Yinchuan
Lanzhou 老媽
Ürümqi 老娘
Wuhan 姆媽媽媽老娘黎山老 slang孟子見 dated slang
Chengdu 媽媽
Guiyang 老媽 humorous
Liuzhou 阿媽娘老老媽子
Kunming 媽媽
Yangzhou 媽媽姆媽老娘
Nanjing 姆媽
Hefei 媽爺
Nantong 娘嬭
Cantonese Guangzhou 老母
Hong Kong 老母老媽子阿媽媽咪
Dongguan 阿媽阿奶阿姐老母老乸 Changping媽媽 childish媽咪 childish
Hong Kong (Weitou) 老母阿奶
Taishan
Yunfu 老母
Yangjiang 阿奶
Xinyi 老母
Nanning 老乸
Kuala Lumpur 老媽子
Gan Nanchang 姆媽
Lichuan 家母
Pingxiang 姆媽娘老子
Hakka Meixian 哀仔
Xingning 哀哩阿媽
Huidong 阿姆
Qujiang 哀子
Xiaosanjiang 阿姆
Changting 哀哩
Pingyu 哀子
Wuping 哀哩
Liancheng
Ninghua 姆媽
Ruijin 乳子
Shicheng
Shangyou 姐佬
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 哀仔
Liudui (S. Sixian) 哀仔
Hsinchu (Hailu) 哀仔
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping) 哀仔
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Hong Kong 阿姆
Senai 吾媽
Singkawang
Huizhou Jixi
Jin Taiyuan 媽媽
Xinzhou 波波
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou 娘嬭
Fuqing 娘嬭
Matsu 娘嬭
Min Nan Xiamen 老母娘嬭阿娘
Quanzhou 老母阿娘
Zhangzhou 老母娘嬭
Taipei 老母
Kaohsiung 老母
Tainan 老母
Taichung 老母媽媽
Hsinchu 老母
Lukang 老母
Sanxia 老母
Yilan 老母
Kinmen 老母俺母
Magong 老母
Penang 老母
Singapore 老母
Chaozhou 阿嬡
Shantou
Haifeng 媽媽
Johor Bahru 我媽
Haikou
Leizhou 尼母尼姨 dated
Pinghua Nanning 老娘阿媼 dated
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou 姆媽
Hangzhou 姆媽媽媽
Wenzhou 阿媽阿奶
Chongming
Danyang
Jinhua
Ningbo 阿娘
Xiang Changsha 媽媽姆媽娘老子
Shuangfeng 姆媽
Loudi 依爺姆媽娘老子

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Others:

  • Khmer: នាង (néang, young woman; girl)
  • Lao: ນາງ (nāng, woman; girl; lady; Mrs.)
  • Thai: นาง (naang, woman; wife; female lover)
  • Vietnamese: nàng (lady; young woman; she)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
むすめ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Compound of 生す (musu, to beget) +‎ (me, female).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(counter , hiragana むすめ, rōmaji musume)

  1. (humble) a daughter
    • 2007 October 20, Hiroshi, Izawa; Kotaro, Yamada, “さいしゅう それぞれのみち [Final Chapter: Epilog]”, in ファイアーエムブレム 覇者の剣 [Fire Emblem: Sword of Champions], volume 5 (fiction, in Japanese), Jump Remix edition, Tokyo: Shueisha, ISBN 978-4-08-109486-8, page 352:
       (おう) (こく)の『 (むすめ)』セシリア
      Ōkoku no ‘Musume’ Seshiria
      Cecilia, ‘Daughter’ of the Kingdom
Synonyms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

See (ko)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji ko)

  1. Alternative spelling of (girl)
    • 1996 February 20, Adachi, Mitsuru, “テイク・オフ [Take Off]”, in SHORT PROGRAMショート・プログラム [SHORT PROGRAM], volume 1 (fiction, in Japanese), 25th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-121881-4, page 107:
       () (ぶん) () (ぶん) (こう) (どう) (じょう) (けん)をつけちゃうんだよ、この ()—— (たと)えば、 (まい) (とし) (はつ) (ゆき) ()るまでモチは ()わないとか、 (れい) (きゅう) (しゃ) (とお)るまで (みち) (わた)らないとか、ネコがあくびするまでコタツを ()ないとか。
      Jibun de jibun no kōdō ni jōken o tsukechaun da yo, kono ko—— Tatoeba, maitoshi hatsuyuki ga furu made mochi wa kuwanai toka, reikyūsha ga tōru made michi o wataranai toka, neko ga akubisuru made kotatsu o denai toka.
      She sets terms for every of her own actions—— Like, not eating mochi until the first snowfall of each year, not crossing the street until the hearse passes by, or not leaving the kotatsu until her cat yawns.
    • 2000 January 20, Tezuka, Osamu, “第3話 スタ一誕生 [Chapter 3: Birth of a Star]”, in ブラック・ジャック [Black Jack], volume 11 (fiction, in Japanese), 8th edition, Tokyo: Hakusensha, ISBN 4-06-108761-4, page 62:
      そのはもう 魅力的な子だった
      Sono ko wa mō SHIN DA Miryokuteki na ko datta
      That girl is already DEAD. She was very attractive.
    • 2010 December 8, Sorachi, Hideaki, “だい三百二十二くん あることはさんある [Lesson 322: Twice, Thrice That There Are]”, in ぎんたま [Silver Soul], volume 37 (fiction, in Japanese), Tokyo: Shueisha, ISBN 978-4-08-870145-5:
      うは ホントだ‼プリップリ デカプリ ()だっ…………
      Uha honto da‼ Purippuri DeKapuriko da'…………
      For real, man‼ Real voluptuous. That’s a VoLuprigirl…………
       () (ちが)った アーノルド (シュ) (ラン)ツェネ ()だった
      …Machigatta Ānorudo Shurantseneko datta
      …Nah, that’s just an Arnold Drunkeneggirl
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(nang) (hangeul )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nương, nàng, nường)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.