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See also:
U+662F, 是
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-662F

[U+662E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6630]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order
是-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 72, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 日一卜人 (AMYO), four-corner 60801, composition𤴓)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 493, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13859
  • Dae Jaweon: page 858, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1497, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+662F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
是-bronze.svg 是-bronze-spring.svg 是-bronze-warring.svg 是-silk.svg 是-slip.svg 是-zhou.svg 是-seal.svg 是-bigseal.svg

Originally a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djeʔ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kjɯʔ), but the original meaning is unclear. It has been suggested that looks like a spoon, so may have been the original character for (OC *dje, “spoon”). As early as in late bronze inscriptions, the lower part of split off and combined with to give , which carried over to the small seal script, and Shuowen considers this a compound of (sun) +  (upright; right) (i.e. as the upright sun).

Etymology[edit]

“This [an independent pronoun] > be right, correct, to be, so”. From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-daj ~ m-di (that; this). In Chinese, cognate with (OC *djɯɡ, “this”), (OC *ɦliɡ, “this”), (OC *tjɯ, “this; he; she; it”), (OC *djeʔ, “to examine, to consider”). In Tibeto-Burman, cognate with Tibetan དེ (de, that), Jingpho dai, ndai (this).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (11)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑjɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/ʑieX/
Wang
Li
/ʑǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shì
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shì
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyeX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]eʔ/
English this

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11645
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djeʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. this; this thing
      ―  shì  ―  this day
  2. (copulative) to be
    1. indicating that the subject and object are the same.
      泰晤士河英國第二河流 [MSC, trad.]
      泰晤士河英国第二河流 [MSC, simp.]
      Tàiwùshìhé shì Yīngguó dì'èr cháng de héliú. [Pinyin]
      The River Thames is the second longest river in the UK.
    2. indicating that the subject has the qualities described by a noun or noun phrase.
      老師 / 老师  ―  shì lǎoshī.  ―  I am a teacher.
      中國人 / 中国人  ―  shì zhōngguórén.  ―  I am Chinese.
    3. indicating a place being occupied by the object, where the place forms the subject.
      房子前面禾場 / 房子前面禾场  ―  Fángzǐ qiánmiàn shì héchǎng.  ―  The threshing floor is in front of the house.
      到處 / 到处  ―  dàochù dōu shì  ―  to be everywhere
  3. a particle emphasizing the word following it.
    昨天 / 昨天  ―  shì zuótiān mǎi de piào.  ―  It was yesterday when I bought the ticket.
    昨天 / 昨天  ―  Wǒ mǎi piào shì zài zuótiān.  ―  It was yesterday when I bought the ticket.
  4. a particle showing agreement. In this meaning, is stressed. truly; indeed.
    天氣 / 天气  ―  Tiānqì shì lěng.  ―  It is indeed cold.
    長官 / 长官  ―  Shì, zhǎngguān.  ―  Yes, sir.
    裙子漂亮但是 [MSC, trad.]
    裙子漂亮但是 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè jiàn qúnzi shì hěn piàoliàng, dànshì tài guì le. [Pinyin]
    Although this dress is truly beautiful, it's too expensive.
  5. (only in compounds) true, correct
    •   ―  shì  ―  fault; mistake; wrongdoing
    • /   ―  nǐ shuō de shì  ―  What you said is right
    •   ―  gè xíng qí shì  ―  to have each going his own way, i.e., doing what he considers right
    • /   ―  gòng shāng guó shì  ―  to discuss national affairs (This is a fossil word from Ancient Chinese where (OC *djeʔ) originally means "what is right (for the country)", i.e., "laws and policies")
  6. A surname​.

Usage notes[edit]

When translated as "to be", is used only to link two nouns or nominal expressions.

老師 / 老师  ―  shì lǎoshī  ―  I am a teacher
泰晤士河英國第二河流 [MSC, trad.]
泰晤士河英国第二河流 [MSC, simp.]
Tàiwùshìhé shì Yīngguó dì'èr cháng de héliú. [Pinyin]
The River Thames is the second longest river in the UK.

is not used to link a noun and an adjective. The following sentence would be incorrect:

* / *  ―  * zhè shì hǎo  ―  *

The correct sentence is

/   ―  zhè hěn hǎo  ―  This is (very) good

Here, (hěn) is used as a filler to link a noun and an adjective and is not interpreted as "very".

A way to use with an adjective is to use (de) after the adjective to turn it into a noun.

/   ―  nà zhī māo shì hēi de  ―  This cat is black (This cat is a black one)

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. justice, right

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
goon

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (ze

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
これ
[pronoun] this
[pronoun] (deictically) this one (near the speaker)
[pronoun] (anaphorically) this one I am talking about (only the speaker knows)
[pronoun] (archaic) I; me
[pronoun] (archaic) you
[pronoun] (literary, calque of Literary Chinese , , , etc.) Repeat the topic with a correct case marker to avoid any misunderstanding if it is not a subject.
Alternative spellings
此れ, , , ,
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (i si))

  1. Hanja form? of (this, to be).

Etymology 2[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 바를 (bareul si))

  1. Hanja form? of (right).

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thị)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.