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See also:
U+611B, 愛
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-611B

[U+611A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+611C]

Translingual

Stroke order
13 strokes

Han character

(radical 61, +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 月月心水 (BBPE), four-corner 20247, composition𢖻)

Derived characters

Related characters

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 395, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10947
  • Dae Jaweon: page 732, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2323, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+611B

Chinese

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
愛-bronze-warring.svg 愛-seal.svg

Originally , a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qɯːds): phonetic  (OC *kɯds) + semantic  (heart).

As early as the Qin dynasty, a meaningless component (“foot”) was added to the bottom of the character, as with some other characters depicting people. Compare (from ).

Further corruption turned the original phonetic into ⿱爫冖.

Etymology

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋ-(w)aːj (to copulate; to love; to be gentle) (STEDT). Compare Proto-Karen *ʔai (to love), whence Pa'o Karen [script needed] (ʔái, to love), S'gaw Karen အဲၣ် ('ɛ̀, to love); Southern Bai e⁴⁴ (love); Mizo hma-ngaih (to love, to like); Jingpho nwai (to respect, to love), ngwi (to be gentle); Burmese [script needed] (ŋwé, to be gentle, moderate). The Chinese word is related to a Tibeto-Burman allofam without initial *ŋ-.

Pronunciation


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • ái - literary;
  • ó̤i - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (41)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔʌiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔəiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔɒiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔəjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔᴀiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɒiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔɑ̆iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ài
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    ài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔojH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[q]ˁə[p]-s/
    English to love; to grudge (< ‘draw close to oneself’?)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qɯːds/
    Notes

    Definitions

    1. to love
      /   ―  ài nǐ.  ―  I love you.
      /   ―  ài tā ma?  ―  Do you love him?
    2. to treasure; to value
    3. to like; to be fond of; to be keen on
      說話 / 说话  ―  ài shuōhuà.  ―  He likes to talk.
      豬肉 / 猪肉  ―  Wǒ bù ài chī zhūròu.  ―  I don't like to eat pork.
    4. to be prone; to be easy to
      發脾氣 / 发脾气  ―  ài fāpíqì  ―  to be short-tempered
      生鏽 / 生锈  ―  Tiě ài shēngxiù.  ―  Iron rusts easily.
    5. love; affection
      /   ―  ài guó  ―  patriotism
    6. love; benevolence
      人間 / 人间  ―  yí'àirénjiān  ―  to leave love behind
    7. something one loves; someone whom one loves
      /   ―  gē'ài  ―  to sacrifice something one loves to someone else
    8. Honorific for someone else's daughter; variant of (ài).
      /   ―  lìng'ài  ―  your precious daughter
    9. affectionate
      /   ―  àiqíng  ―  love
    10. beloved
      /   ―  ài  ―  beloved wife
    11. (Cantonese, Hakka, Wu) to want (an object)
      咁多 / 咁多 [Cantonese]  ―  Ngo5 m4 oi3 gam3 do1. [Jyutping]  ―  I don't want that much.
    12. (Hakka, Min) to want (to do)
    13. (Hakka, Min) to need to; must
      注意 [Taiwanese, trad.]
      注意 [Taiwanese, simp.]
      Ū chi̍t tiám ài chù-ì--ê. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
      There's one thing you must bear in mind.
    14. A surname​.

    Synonyms

    Usage notes

    • When used for people, usually refers to romantic love. When used like this, older Mandarin speakers often describe the use of this term as overly 肉麻 (ròumá, “cheesy”). For this reason, the word 喜歡喜欢 (xǐhuan, “to like”) might be used instead. Using the word 喜歡喜欢 (xǐhuan) literally means like, but when used in a romantic context (especially boyfriend/girlfriend), it actually means love. However, younger Mandarin speakers seem to have been influenced somewhat by Western culture, and are now using the verb much more often than was socially acceptable in the past.

    Descendants

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (あい) (ai)
    • Korean: (, ae)
    • Vietnamese: ái ()

    Compounds

    Further reading


    Japanese

    Kanji

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings

    Compounds

    Etymology 1

    Kanji in this term
    あい
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔʌiH).

    Compare modern Mandarin (ài).

    Pronunciation

    Noun

    (hiragana あい, rōmaji ai)

    1. love
       (あい) (つよ)く。
      Ai wa tsuyoku.
      The love is strong.
    2. affection
      Synonym: 愛情 (aijō)
    3. tenderness
    4. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      Synonym: 愛想 (aiso)
    5. (Buddhism) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    6. (Christianity) agape
    Synonyms
    Derived terms

    Proper noun

    (hiragana あい, rōmaji Ai)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 2

    Kanji in this term
    まな
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    Originally a compound of (ma, true, genuine) +‎ (na), an Old Japanese version of modern Japanese (no, possessive particle).[3]

    The use of here is an example of ateji (当て字).

    Alternative forms

    Pronunciation

    Prefix

    (hiragana まな, rōmaji mana-)

    1. before a common noun, expresses a sense of admiration or value: good, genuine; compare English the real deal
    2. before a noun describing a person, expresses praise or fondness: dear, beloved
    Derived terms

    Noun

    (hiragana まな, rōmaji mana)

    1. (archaic, derived from prefix sense) something dear or loved

    Proper noun

    (hiragana まな, rōmaji Mana)

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 3

    Used as ateji in various names. is a very common element in many, many names.

    Proper noun

    (hiragana あづみ, rōmaji Azumi, alternative reading ああい, rōmaji Āi, alternative reading あいか, rōmaji Aika, alternative reading あいす, rōmaji Aisu, alternative reading あき, rōmaji Aki, alternative reading あこ, rōmaji Ako, alternative reading あみか, rōmaji Amika, alternative reading あおい, rōmaji Aoi, alternative reading ありさ, rōmaji Arisa, alternative reading あや, rōmaji Aya, alternative reading あゆ, rōmaji Ayu, alternative reading ちぎり, rōmaji Chigiri, alternative reading ちか, rōmaji Chika, alternative reading ちかし, rōmaji Chikashi, alternative reading えりな, rōmaji Erina, alternative reading はあと, rōmaji Hāto, alternative reading ひかり, rōmaji Hikari, alternative reading いと, rōmaji Ito, alternative reading いとし, rōmaji Itoshi, alternative reading いつみ, rōmaji Itsumi, alternative reading いずみ, rōmaji Izumi, alternative reading かな, rōmaji Kana, alternative reading かなえ, rōmaji Kanae, alternative reading かなさ, rōmaji Kanasa, alternative reading きずな, rōmaji Kizuna, alternative reading こころ, rōmaji Kokoro, alternative reading このむ, rōmaji Konomu, alternative reading まどか, rōmaji Madoka, alternative reading まなぶ, rōmaji Manabu, alternative reading まなみ, rōmaji Manami, alternative reading めづる, rōmaji Mezuru, alternative reading めご, rōmaji Mego, alternative reading めぐ, rōmaji Megu, alternative reading めぐみ, rōmaji Megumi, alternative reading めぐむ, rōmaji Megumu, alternative reading めい, rōmaji Mei, alternative reading なる, rōmaji Naru, alternative reading なるこ, rōmaji Naruko, alternative reading のぞみ, rōmaji Nozomi, alternative reading らぶ, rōmaji Rabu, alternative reading るい, rōmaji Rui, alternative reading さら, rōmaji Sara, alternative reading さらん, rōmaji Saran, alternative reading つぐみ, rōmaji Tsugumi, alternative reading つくみ, rōmaji Tsukumi, alternative reading うい, rōmaji Ui, alternative reading よし, rōmaji Yoshi, alternative reading よしき, rōmaji Yoshiki, alternative reading よしみ, rōmaji Yoshimi)

    1. a female given name

    References

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean

    Hanja

    (eumhun 사랑 (sarang ae))

    1. Hanja form? of (love).

    Compounds


    Okinawan

    Kanji

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings


    Old Japanese

    Alternative forms

    Etymology

    Originally a compound of (ma, true, genuine) +‎ (na, apophonic form of possessive particle (no2)).

    Noun

    (mana) (kana まな)

    1. something dear or loved
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3462)
        安志比奇乃夜末佐波妣登乃比登佐波爾麻奈登伊布児我安夜爾可奈思佐
        asi-pi1ki2 no2 yamasapabi1to2 no2 pi1to2 sapa ni mana to2 ipu ko1 ga aya ni kanasisa
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Derived terms

    Descendants

    • Japanese: (mana-)

    Vietnamese

    Han character

    : Hán Việt readings: ái[1][2][3][4][5], áy[4]
    : Nôm readings: ái[1][2][3][4][5][6], áy[1][2][3][4][5][6], ải[1]

    1. Hán tự form of ái (love).
    2. Nôm form of áy (troubled; anxious).

    Compounds

    References