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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
愛-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  + semantic 

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 月月心水 (BBPE), four-corner 20247, composition𢖻)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 395, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10947
  • Dae Jaweon: page 732, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2323, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+611B

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (34)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔʌiH/ /ʔɑ̆iH/ /ʔᴀiH/ /ʔəiH/ /ʔəjH/ /ɒiH/ /ʔɒiH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
ài ‹ ʔojH › /*[q]ˤə[p]-s/ to love; to grudge (< ‘draw close to oneself’?)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1 1 /*qɯːds/ 說文本從心旡聲

Noun[edit]

  1. love; affection
    • 祖國 / 祖国  ―  zǔguó ài  ―  patriotism
  2. love; benevolence
  3. something one loves; someone whom one loves
    • /   ―  ài  ―  to sacrifice something one loves to someone else
  4. Honorific for someone else's daughter; variant of
    • /   ―  lìngài  ―  your precious daughter

Verb[edit]

  1. to love
  2. to like; to be fond of; to be keen on
  3. to be prone; to be easy to
  4. to treasure; to value
  5. (Hakka, Cantonese) to want (an object)
  6. (Min, Hakka) to want to do; to need to; must

Usage notes[edit]

  • When used for people, usually refers to romantic love. When used like this, older Mandarin speakers often describe the use of this term as overly 肉麻 (ròumá, “something that gives you the creeps, disgusting”). For this reason, the word 喜歡喜欢 (xǐhuān, “to like”) might be used instead. Using the word 喜歡喜欢 (xǐhuān) literally means like, but when used in a romantic context (especially boyfriend/girlfriend), it actually means love. However, younger Mandarin speakers seem to have been influenced somewhat by Western culture, and are now using the verb much more often than was socially acceptable in the past.

Adjective[edit]

  1. affectionate
  2. beloved

Proper noun[edit]

  1. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
あい
Grade: 4
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (/ʔojH/, “to love”). Compare modern Mandarin (ài).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana あい, romaji ai)

  1. love
  2. affection
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana あい, romaji Ai)

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
めで
Grade: 4
kun'yomi

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of Old Japanese verb 愛でる ‎(mederu, to love; to appreciate or admire).[3][1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana めで, romaji mede)

  1. (archaic) love, appreciation, dearness
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem #894)
       (めで) () (さかり) () 天下 (あめのした)  (まをし) () () () ()  (いへの) () ()  (えらひ) () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       (めで) (さか)りに  (あめ) (した)  (もう) (たま)いし  (いえ) ()と  (えら) (たま)いて [Modern spelling]
      mede no sakari ni ame no shita mōshitamai shi ie no ko to erabitamaite
      with the utmost of love, [Amaterasu] spoke under the heavens, and chose with her children...
Idioms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
まな
Grade: 4
kun'yomi

Originally a compound of ‎(ma, true, genuine) +‎ ‎(na), an Old Japanese version of modern Japanese ‎(no, possessive particle).[3] The use of here is an example of ateji.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana まな, romaji mana)

  1. (archaic) (derived from prefix sense) something dear, something loved
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3462)
      麻奈 (まな)登伊布兒我 (といふこが) 安夜尓可奈思佐 (あやにかなしさ) [Man'yōgana]
       (まな)という ()が あやに (かな)しさ [Modern spelling]
      mana to iu ko ga aya ni kanashisa
      the child called a dear, such indescribable tenderness

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana まな, romaji mana-)

  1. before a common noun, expresses a sense of admiration or value: good, genuine; compare English the real deal
  2. before a noun describing a person, expresses praise or fondness: dear, beloved
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana まな, romaji Mana)

  1. A female given name

Etymology 4[edit]

Used as ateji in various names. is a very common element in many, many names.

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana あづみ, romaji Azumi, alternative reading ああい, romaji Āi, alternative reading あいか, romaji Aika, alternative reading あいす, romaji Aisu, alternative reading あき, romaji Aki, alternative reading あこ, romaji Ako, alternative reading あみか, romaji Amika, alternative reading あおい, romaji Aoi, alternative reading ありさ, romaji Arisa, alternative reading あや, romaji Aya, alternative reading あゆ, romaji Ayu, alternative reading ちぎり, romaji Chigiri, alternative reading ちか, romaji Chika, alternative reading ちかし, romaji Chikashi, alternative reading えりな, romaji Erina, alternative reading はあと, romaji Hāto, alternative reading ひかり, romaji Hikari, alternative reading いと, romaji Ito, alternative reading いとし, romaji Itoshi, alternative reading いつみ, romaji Itsumi, alternative reading いずみ, romaji Izumi, alternative reading かな, romaji Kana, alternative reading かなえ, romaji Kanae, alternative reading かなさ, romaji Kanasa, alternative reading きずな, romaji Kizuna, alternative reading こころ, romaji Kokoro, alternative reading このむ, romaji Konomu, alternative reading まどか, romaji Madoka, alternative reading まなぶ, romaji Manabu, alternative reading まなみ, romaji Manami, alternative reading めづる, romaji Mezuru, alternative reading めご, romaji Mego, alternative reading めぐ, romaji Megu, alternative reading めぐみ, romaji Megumi, alternative reading めぐむ, romaji Megumu, alternative reading めい, romaji Mei, alternative reading なる, romaji Naru, alternative reading なるこ, romaji Naruko, alternative reading のぞみ, romaji Nozomi, alternative reading らぶ, romaji Rabu, alternative reading るい, romaji Rui, alternative reading さら, romaji Sara, alternative reading さらん, romaji Saran, alternative reading つぐみ, romaji Tsugumi, alternative reading つくみ, romaji Tsukumi, alternative reading うい, romaji Ui, alternative reading よし, romaji Yoshi, alternative reading よしき, romaji Yoshiki, alternative reading よしみ, romaji Yoshimi)

  1. A female given name

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. 3.0 3.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ae) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ae, Yale ay)

  1. love

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ái, áy)

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