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See also: , , and 𠄔
U+4E88, 予
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E88

[U+4E87]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E89]

Translingual

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Stroke order

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 6, +3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈弓弓 (NINN), four-corner 17202, composition 𠄐)

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №127

Derived characters

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Further reading

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Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :
[[wikisource:zh:康熙字典/亅部/三畫#予|亅部/三畫]]

Wikisource


  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 85, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 231
  • Dae Jaweon: page 174, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 52, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4E88

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Jiajie (假借) and Ideogram (指事) . Originally (OC *ɡ·raʔ) borrowed for sound, later was added as a distinguishing mark.

Etymology 1

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simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-la (to pay; to give for).

Pronunciation

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Note: literary reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter yoX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨʌX/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɔX/
Shao
Rongfen
/iɔX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨə̆X/
Li
Rong
/iɔX/
Wang
Li
/jĭoX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯woX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jyu5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yoX ›
Old
Chinese
/*laʔ/
English give; together with

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 15739
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*laʔ/

Definitions

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  1. (alt. form ) to give
  2. to praise; to esteem

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms









𢗝

“by”
“to allow; to cause”
使 “to cause”
“to cause”
Quanzhou
 

(OC *laʔ) is often considered to be the original character (Lin, 1998, 1999; Mei, 2007); Taiwan's Ministry of Education considers the cognate (OC *laʔ) to be the original character. In either case, this would be the same word as etymology 1.

Alternatively, Zhao (1991) argues that this is a Kra-Dai substrate, suggesting a borrowing from Proto-Tai *haɰꟲ (to give), whence Zhuang hawj (to give; to allow) and Bouyei haec (to give; to allow). Note that the Tai word has been connected to Middle Chinese (MC xjoX, “to allow”) (Manomaivibool, 1975). On the other hand, Zheng (2008) considers both the Hokkien word and the Kra-Dai word to be derived from .

Assuming to be the etymon, there are also various theories on the development of the h- initial:

Sagart (2017c) considers to be a problematic etymon but agrees with the third theory on the development of h- above. He suggests that a possible trigger for the change from /tʰ/ to /h/ is that /tʰɔ/ is often used with /kʰit/, allowing /kʰit tʰɔ/ to be reanalysed as /kʰit hɔ/. This etymology was also independently proposed by Lien (2002).

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Hokkien) to give
    [Hokkien, trad. and simp.]
    I hō͘ góa gō͘ kho͘. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    He gave me five dollars.
  2. (Teochew) to deliver; to give
  3. (Hokkien) to allow
    [Hokkien]  ―  Hō͘ i khì! [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Let it go!
  4. (Hokkien) to cause; to make
  5. (Hokkien, Teochew) by (used in constructing the passive)
    [Hokkien]  ―  I hō͘ lâng phah. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  He was beaten up (by someone).
  6. (Penang Hokkien) to pay
Synonyms
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Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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simp. and trad.

Traditionally considered a variant of (OC *la), however Shijing and Chuci rhymes suggests that the expected tone reflex was rising tone, similar to Pronunciation 1 (Mattos, 1971; Pulleyblank, 1995), which corresponds to a glottal stop coda in Old Chinese. It could thus be reanalyzed an emphatic form of the *l- series of first-person pronouns, similar to (OC *ŋaːlʔ, “me, us”) compared to (OC *ŋaː, “I, we”) in the *ŋ- series.

Cognate with (OC *la), (OC *lɯ, “I”), (OC *l'ɯmʔ). Further etymology is obscure (Schuessler, 2007). Li F. (1976) reconstructs Old Chinese *rag, and compares it to Proto-Tai *rawᴬ (first person plural pronoun) > Thai เรา (rao, we). However, Schuessler considers this etymon belonging to (OC *raŋʔ, *raŋs, “both”).

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter yo
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/iɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/iɔ/
Wang
Li
/jĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jyu4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yo ›
Old
Chinese
/*laʔ/
English I, we

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 15738
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*la/

Definitions

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  1. (obsolete) Alternative form of (I, me)
  2. a surname
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Etymology 4

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“relaxed; comfortable; at ease; etc.”).
(This character is the second-round simplified and variant form of ).
Notes:

Etymology 5

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“beforehand, in advance; to take part in; etc.”).
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

Further reading

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. beforehand, in advance

Readings

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Compounds

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Kanji

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(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. I; me
  2. to give

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on’yomi
Alternative spelling

From Middle Chinese (MC yo).

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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() (yo

  1. first-person personal pronoun; I, me
    • 1802-1814: Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige (volume 1)
      此街道に毫をはせて膝栗毛の書を著す。
      I, on this highway, in a little while, "Hizakurige"'s lyrics I'll write

References

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  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア [Kanjipedia]‎[1] (in Japanese), The Japan Kanji Aptitude Testing Foundation, 2015–2024
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja

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(eum (yeo))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: nhừ,

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

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