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See also: , , and 𠄔
U+4E88, 予
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E88

[U+4E87]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E89]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 6, +3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈弓弓 (NINN), four-corner 17202, composition𠄐)

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №127

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


  • KangXi: page 85, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 231
  • Dae Jaweon: page 174, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 52, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4E88

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
ACC-s02873.svg




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Two hands, each handing an object to another.

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-la (to pay; to give for).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: literary reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨʌX/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɔX/
Shao
Rongfen
/iɔX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨə̆X/
Li
Rong
/iɔX/
Wang
Li
/jĭoX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯woX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yoX ›
Old
Chinese
/*laʔ/
English give; together with

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 15739
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*laʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (= ) to give
  2. to praise; to esteem

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
 









𢗝

“by”
“to allow; to cause”
使 “to cause”
“to cause”
Quanzhou

Most sources (e.g. Lin, 1999; Mei, 2007) consider (OC *laʔ) to be the original character; Taiwan's Ministry of Education considers the cognate (OC *laʔ) to be the original character. In either case, this would be the same word as etymology 1.

Alternatively, Zhao (1991) argues that this is a Kra-Dai substrate, suggesting a borrowing from Proto-Tai *haɰᶜ (to give), whence Zhuang hawj (to give; to allow) and Bouyei haec (to give; to allow). Note that the Tai word has been connected to Middle Chinese (MC hɨʌX, “to allow”) (Manomaivibool, 1975).

On the other hand, Zheng (2008) considers both the Hokkien word and the Kra-Dai word to be derived from .

Assuming to be the etymon, there are also various theories on the development of the h- initial:

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Hokkien) to give
    [Min Nan]  ―  I hō͘ góa gō͘ kho͘. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  He gave me five dollars.
  2. (Hokkien) to allow
    [Min Nan]  ―  Hō͘ i khì! [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Let it go!
  3. (Hokkien) to cause; to make
  4. (Hokkien, Teochew) by (used in constructing the passive)
    [Min Nan]  ―  I hō͘ lâng phah. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  He was beaten up (by someone).
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/iɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/iɔ/
Wang
Li
/jĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yo ›
Old
Chinese
/*laʔ/
English I, we

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 15738
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*la/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (, “I, me”).
    上帝 [Classical Chinese, trad. and simp.]
    From: The Book of Documents, circa 4th – 3rd century BCE
    wèi shàngdì, bù gǎn bù zhèng. [Pinyin]
    As I fear the Heaven, I dare not but punish him.
    夫子:「!」 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    夫子:“!” [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Analects of Confucius, circa 475 – 221 BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Fūzǐ shǐ zhī yuē: “ suǒ pǐ zhě, tiān yàn zhī! Tiān yàn zhī!” [Pinyin]
    On which the Master swore, saying, "Wherein I have done improperly, may Heaven reject me! May Heaven reject me!"
  2. A surname​.
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“relaxed; comfortable; at ease; etc.”).
(This character, , is the second-round simplified and variant form of .)
Notes:

Etymology 5[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“beforehand; to take part in; etc.”).
(This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
Notes:

Further reading[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. beforehand, in advance

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

() (yo (kyūjitai )

  1. first-person personal pronoun; I, me
    • 1802-1814: Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige (volume 1)
      此街道に毫をはせて膝栗毛の書を著す。
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

References[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eum (yeo))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: nhừ,

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]