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U+9084, 還
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9084

[U+9083]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9085]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 162 +13, 17 strokes, cangjie input 卜田中女 (YWLV), four-corner 36303, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1266, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39174
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1764, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3888, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+9084

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
還-bronze.svg 還-silk.svg 還-bigseal.svg 還-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʷraːn
*kʷraːn, *ɡʷraːns
*ɡʷraːn, *sɢʷan
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːn, *ɡʷeːns
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːn, *ɡʷen
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːn, *ɡʷraːns
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːns, *ɡʷeːnʔ
*sɢʷan, *sɢʷin
*qʰʷen
*qʰʷen
*qʰʷen, *qʰʷenʔ
*qʰʷen, *qʷen, *ɡʷeŋ
*qʰʷen
*kʷeːns
*kʷeːns
*qʷeːns
*ɡʷreːŋ, *ɡʷreːŋ
*ɡʷeŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡʷraːn, *sɢʷan): semantic (walk) + phonetic (OC *ɡʷeŋ) – to go back; to return.

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Is the Mandarin reading of hai2 the result of repurposing an existing character? It doesn't seem to be related to non-Mandarin readings and the Old/Middle Chinese data.”

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • hêng, hâiⁿ - vernacular;
  • hoân - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xuan³⁵/
Harbin /xuan²⁴/
Tianjin /xuan⁴⁵/ ~原
Jinan /xuã⁴²/
Qingdao /xuã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xuan⁴²/
Xi'an /xuã²⁴/
Xining /xuã²⁴/
Yinchuan /xuan⁵³/ 归~
Lanzhou /xuɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /xuan⁵¹/
Wuhan /xuan²¹³/
Chengdu /xuan³¹/
Guiyang /xuan²¹/ 歸~
Kunming /xuã̠³¹/
Nanjing /xuaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /xuæ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xuæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /xuɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /xuæ̃³¹/ ~東西
Wu Shanghai /ɦue²³/
Suzhou /ɦue̞¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦuõ²¹³/
Wenzhou /va³¹/
Hui Shexian /xuɛ⁴⁴/ 歸~
Tunxi /uɛ⁴⁴/ 歸~
Xiang Changsha /fan¹³/ ~價
Xiangtan /ɸan¹²/
Gan Nanchang /uan⁴⁵/ 有借有~
/fan⁴⁵/ ~原
Hakka Meixian /fan¹¹/ ~原
Taoyuan /hɑn¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /wan²¹/
Nanning /wan²¹/
Hong Kong /wan²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /huan³⁵/
/hãi³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huaŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xiŋ³³/
/uiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /huaŋ⁵⁵/
/hõi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /huaŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (17)
Final () (70) (78)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () II III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠuan/ /ziuᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷᵚan/ /zʷiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɐn/ /zjuæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwaɨn/ /zwian/
Li
Rong
/ɣuan/ /ziuɛn/
Wang
Li
/ɣwan/ /zĭwɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣwan/ /zi̯wɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huán xuán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
huán xuán
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwæn › ‹ zjwen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷˤ<r>en/ /*s-ɢʷen/
English turn around; return turn around, return; agile

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 16230 16244
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡʷraːn/ /*sɢʷan/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to return to a place; to go back to a place
    /   ―  huánjiā  ―  to return home
    /   ―  huánxiāng  ―  to return to one's hometown
    /   ―  huányuán  ―  to return to the original state, [chemistry] to reduce
    /   ―  huán  ―  to resume secular life
  2. to return an object; to give back
    /   ―  chánghuán  ―  to reimburse
    /   ―  huánshū  ―  to return the books (to the library)
    /   ―  qiàn qián bù huán  ―  to owe money (without the intention of paying back)
    手機 [MSC, trad.]
    手机 [MSC, simp.]
    Bǎ wǒ de shǒujī huán gěi wǒ. [Pinyin]
    Give my mobile back to me.
  3. to do or give something in return
    /   ―  huánzuǐ  ―  to retort
    /   ―  huánshǒu  ―  to hit back
    /   ―  huán  ―  to present a gift in return
    /   ―  huán  ―  to fight back
    /   ―  huánjià  ―  to make a counter-offer buying price
    以眼以牙 [MSC, trad.]
    以眼以牙 [MSC, simp.]
    yǐ yǎn huán yǎn, yǐ yá huán [Pinyin]
    [literally] an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth; tit for tat
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xai³⁵/
Harbin /xai⁵³/
/xai²⁴/
Tianjin /xai⁴⁵/ ~有
Jinan
Qingdao
Zhengzhou
Xi'an
Xining
Yinchuan
Lanzhou /xɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi
Wuhan
Chengdu
Guiyang /xai²¹/ ~是
Kunming
Nanjing /xae²⁴/
Hefei
Jin Taiyuan
Pingyao
Hohhot /xæ̃³¹/ ~不走
Wu Shanghai /ɦe²³/
Suzhou
Hangzhou
Wenzhou
Hui Shexian /uɛ⁴⁴/ ~有
Tunxi /uːə⁴⁴/ ~要
Xiang Changsha /xai¹³/ 副詞
Xiangtan
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /han¹¹/ ~有
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou
Nanning
Hong Kong
Min Xiamen (Min Nan)
Fuzhou (Min Dong)
Jian'ou (Min Bei)
Shantou (Min Nan)
Haikou (Min Nan)

Definitions[edit]

  1. still; yet; indicates that the phenomenon or observation still exists or the action is still ongoing
    /   ―  hái méi lái.  ―  He hasn't come yet.
    怎麼 / 怎么  ―  Nǐ zěnme hái méi dào?  ―  Why are you still not here?
    工作 [MSC, trad.]
    工作 [MSC, simp.]
    Shí diǎn le, tā hái zài gōngzuò. [Pinyin]
    It's ten o'clock already and he is still working.
    那麼漂亮 [MSC, trad.]
    那么漂亮 [MSC, simp.]
    Jǐ nián bù jiàn, tā hái shì nàme piàoliàng. [Pinyin]
    She is still very beautiful after all these years.
  2. even more; indicates an increase from a certain level or a supplement
    今年去年 / 今年去年  ―  Jīnnián bǐ qùnián hái lěng.  ―  This year is even colder than last year.
    考試上課 / 考试上课  ―  Kǎoshì wán hái yào shàngkè.  ―  (I) still have classes after the exams.
    工作 [MSC, trad.]
    工作 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā péi le yī dà bǐ qián, hái diū le gōngzuò. [Pinyin]
    He lost a lot of money and even his job.
  3. (before adjectives, mostly positive) passably; (surprisingly) quite
    成績可以 / 成绩可以  ―  Wǒ de chéngjī hái kěyǐ.  ―  I have a passable grade.
    屋子收拾乾淨 [MSC, trad.]
    屋子收拾干净 [MSC, simp.]
    Wūzi bù dà, shōushi dé dǎo hái qiánjìng. [Pinyin]
    It's quite clean for such a small room.
    孩子懂事 [MSC, trad.]
    孩子懂事 [MSC, simp.]
    Háizi bù dà, hái tǐng dǒngshì de. [Pinyin]
    The small kid is surprisingly quite sensible.
    蛋糕好吃 [MSC, trad.]
    蛋糕好吃 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè dàngāo hái tǐng hǎochī de. [Pinyin]
    That was a pretty tasty cake.
  4. (often in rhetorical questions) indicates condition and contrast, interchangeable with 都; even
    何況 [MSC, trad.]
    何况 [MSC, simp.]
    hái bān bù dòng, hékuàng wǒ ne? [Pinyin]
    Even you can't move it, let alone me.
  5. indicates unexpectedness; really
    辦法 / 办法  ―  hái zhēn yǒu bànfǎ.  ―  Surprisingly he has a way to do this.
  6. indicates past events; emphasising earliness
    以前我們研究這個方案 [MSC, trad.]
    以前我们研究这个方案 [MSC, simp.]
    Hái zài jǐ nián yǐqián, wǒmen jiù yánjiū guò zhège fāng'àn. [Pinyin]
    The proposal has been studied by us a couple of years ago (and now you made the suggestion to study it).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hwan, seon) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer hwan, sŏn, Yale hwan, sen)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hoàn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.