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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 162 +13, 17 strokes, cangjie input 卜田中女 (YWLV), four-corner 36303, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1266, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39174
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1764, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3888, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+9084

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
還-bronze.svg 還-silk.svg 還-bigseal.svg 還-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡʷraːn, *sɢʷan): semantic  ‎(walk) + phonetic  ‎(OC *ɡʷeŋ) – to go back; to return.

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.
Particularly: “Is the Mandarin reading of hai2 the result of repurposing an existing character? It doesn't seem to be related to non-Mandarin readings and the Old/Middle Chinese data.”

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xuan³⁵/
Harbin /xuan²⁴/
Tianjin /xuan⁴⁵/ ~原
Jinan /xuã⁴²/
Qingdao /xuã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xuan⁴²/
Xi'an /xuã²⁴/
Xining /xuã²⁴/
Yinchuan /xuan⁵³/ 归~
Lanzhou /xuɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /xuan⁵¹/
Wuhan /xuan²¹³/
Chengdu /xuan³¹/
Guiyang /xuan²¹/ 歸~
Kunming /xuã̠³¹/
Nanjing /xuaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /xuæ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xuæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /xuɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /xuæ̃³¹/ ~東西
Wu Shanghai /ɦue²³/
Suzhou /ɦue̞¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦuõ²¹³/
Wenzhou /va³¹/
Hui Shexian /xuɛ⁴⁴/ 歸~
Tunxi /uɛ⁴⁴/ 歸~
Xiang Changsha /fan¹³/ ~價
Xiangtan /ɸan¹²/
Gan Nanchang /uan⁴⁵/ 有借有~
/fan⁴⁵/ ~原
Hakka Meixian /fan¹¹/ ~原
Taoyuan /hɑn¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /wan²¹/
Nanning /wan²¹/
Hong Kong /wan²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /huan³⁵/
/hãi³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huaŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xiŋ³³/
/uiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /huaŋ⁵⁵/
/hõi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /huaŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (17)
Final () (70) (78)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () II III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠuan/ /ziuᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷᵚan/ /zʷiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɐn/ /zjuæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwaɨn/ /zwian/
Li
Rong
/ɣuan/ /ziuɛn/
Wang
Li
/ɣwan/ /zĭwɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣwan/ /zi̯wɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huán xuán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
huán xuán
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwæn › ‹ zjwen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷˤ<r>en/ /*s-ɢʷen/
English turn around; return turn around, return; agile

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 16230 16244
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡʷraːn/ /*sɢʷan/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to return to a place; to go back to a place
    /   ―  huánjiā  ―  to return home
    /   ―  huánxiāng  ―  to return to one's hometown
    /   ―  huányuán  ―  to return to the original state, [chemistry] to reduce
    /   ―  huán  ―  to resume secular life
  2. to return an object; to give back
    /   ―  chánghuán  ―  to reimburse
    /   ―  huánshū  ―  to return the books (to the library)
    /   ―  qiàn qián bù huán  ―  to owe money (without the intention of paying back)
    手機 [MSC, trad.]
    手机 [MSC, simp.]
    Bǎ wǒ de shǒujī huán gěi wǒ. [Pinyin]
    Give my mobile back to me.
  3. to do or give something in return
    /   ―  huánzuǐ  ―  to retort
    /   ―  huánshǒu  ―  to hit back
    /   ―  huán  ―  to present a gift in return
    /   ―  huán  ―  to fight back
    /   ―  huánjià  ―  to make a counter-offer buying price
    以眼以牙 [MSC, trad.]
    以眼以牙 [MSC, simp.]
    yǐ yǎn huán yǎn, yǐ yá huán [Pinyin]
    [literally] an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth; tit for tat
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xai³⁵/
Harbin /xai⁵³/
/xai²⁴/
Tianjin /xai⁴⁵/ ~有
Jinan
Qingdao
Zhengzhou
Xi'an
Xining
Yinchuan
Lanzhou /xɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi
Wuhan
Chengdu
Guiyang /xai²¹/ ~是
Kunming
Nanjing /xae²⁴/
Hefei
Jin Taiyuan
Pingyao
Hohhot /xæ̃³¹/ ~不走
Wu Shanghai /ɦe²³/
Suzhou
Hangzhou
Wenzhou
Hui Shexian /uɛ⁴⁴/ ~有
Tunxi /uːə⁴⁴/ ~要
Xiang Changsha /xai¹³/ 副詞
Xiangtan
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /han¹¹/ ~有
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou
Nanning
Hong Kong
Min Xiamen (Min Nan)
Fuzhou (Min Dong)
Jian'ou (Min Bei)
Shantou (Min Nan)
Haikou (Min Nan)

Definitions[edit]

  1. still; yet; indicates that the phenomenon or observation still exists or the action is still ongoing
    /   ―  hái méi lái.  ―  He hasn't come yet.
    怎麼 / 怎么  ―  Nǐ zěnme hái méi dào?  ―  Why are you still not here?
    工作 [MSC, trad.]
    工作 [MSC, simp.]
    Shí diǎn le, tā hái zài gōngzuò. [Pinyin]
    It's ten o'clock already and he is still working.
    那麼漂亮 [MSC, trad.]
    那么漂亮 [MSC, simp.]
    Jǐ nián bù jiàn, tā hái shì nàme piàoliàng. [Pinyin]
    She is still very beautiful after all these years.
  2. even more; indicates an increase from a certain level or a supplement
    今年去年 / 今年去年  ―  Jīnnián bǐ qùnián hái lěng.  ―  This year is even colder than last year.
    考試上課 / 考试上课  ―  Kǎoshì wán hái yào shàngkè.  ―  (I) still have classes after the exams.
    工作 [MSC, trad.]
    工作 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā péi le yī dà bǐ qián, hái diū le gōngzuò. [Pinyin]
    He lost a lot of money and even his job.
  3. (before adjectives, mostly positive) passably; (surprisingly) quite
    成績可以 / 成绩可以  ―  Wǒ de chéngjī hái kěyǐ.  ―  I have a passable grade.
    屋子收拾乾淨 [MSC, trad.]
    屋子收拾干净 [MSC, simp.]
    Wūzi bù dà, shōushi dé dǎo hái qiánjìng. [Pinyin]
    It's quite clean for such a small room.
    孩子懂事 [MSC, trad.]
    孩子懂事 [MSC, simp.]
    Háizi bù dà, hái tǐng dǒngshì de. [Pinyin]
    The small kid is surprisingly quite sensible.
    蛋糕好吃 [MSC, trad.]
    蛋糕好吃 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè dàngāo hái tǐng hǎochī de. [Pinyin]
    That was a pretty tasty cake.
  4. (often in rhetorical questions) indicates condition and contrast; even
    何況 [MSC, trad.]
    何况 [MSC, simp.]
    hái bān bù dòng, hékuàng wǒ ne? [Pinyin]
    Even you can't move it, let alone me.
  5. indicates unexpectedness; really
    辦法 / 办法  ―  hái zhēn yǒu bànfǎ.  ―  Surprisingly he has a way to do this.
  6. indicates past events; emphasising earliness
    以前我們研究這個方案 [MSC, trad.]
    以前我们研究这个方案 [MSC, simp.]
    Hái zài jǐ nián yǐqián, wǒmen jiù yánjiū guò zhège fāng'àn. [Pinyin]
    The proposal has been studied by us a couple of years ago (and now you made the suggestion to study it).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hwan, seon) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer hwan, sŏn, Yale hwan, sen)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hoàn)

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