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See also:
U+9084, 還
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9084

[U+9083]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9085]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 162, +13, 17 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 16 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 卜田中女 (YWLV), four-corner 36303, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1266, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39174
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1764, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3888, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+9084

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
還-bronze.svg 還-silk.svg 還-seal.svg 還-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʷraːn
*kʷraːn, *ɡʷraːns
*ɡʷraːn, *sɢʷan
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːn, *ɡʷeːns
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːn, *ɡʷen
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːn, *ɡʷraːns
*ɡʷraːn
*ɡʷraːns, *ɡʷeːnʔ
*sɢʷan, *sɢʷin
*qʰʷen
*qʰʷen
*qʰʷen, *qʰʷenʔ
*qʰʷen, *qʷen, *ɡʷeŋ
*qʰʷen
*kʷeːns
*kʷeːns
*qʷeːns
*ɡʷreːŋ, *ɡʷreːŋ
*ɡʷeŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡʷraːn, *sɢʷan): semantic  (walk) + phonetic  (OC *ɡʷeŋ) – to go back; to return.

Etymology[edit]

“to return”
From Austroasiatic; compare Khmer រង្វាន់ (rŭəngvŏən, reward; award; bonus) (Schuessler, 2007). Probably related to (OC *ɡʷraːn, “ring; to encircle”) (ibid.).
EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Is the Mandarin reading of hai2 the result of repurposing an existing character? It doesn't seem to be related to non-Mandarin readings and the Old/Middle Chinese data.”

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • uan4 - “to return (an object)”;
  • fan4 - used in compounds, e.g. 還原还原.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • hèng - vernacular;
    • huàng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hêng/hâiⁿ/hân/hn̂g - vernacular;
    • hoân - literary.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: hoin5 / hain5 / huang5 / huêng5
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: hôiⁿ / hâiⁿ / huâng / huêng
      • IPA (key): /hõĩ⁵⁵/, /hãĩ⁵⁵/, /huaŋ⁵⁵/, /hueŋ⁵⁵/
    Note:
    • hoin5/hain5 - vernacular;
    • huang5/huêng5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xuan³⁵/
    Harbin /xuan²⁴/
    Tianjin /xuan⁴⁵/ ~原
    Jinan /xuã⁴²/
    Qingdao /xuã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xuan⁴²/
    Xi'an /xuã²⁴/
    Xining /xuã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xuan⁵³/ 归~
    Lanzhou /xuɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xuan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xuan²¹³/
    Chengdu /xuan³¹/
    Guiyang /xuan²¹/ 歸~
    Kunming /xuã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /xuaŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /xuæ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xuæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /xuɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /xuæ̃³¹/ ~東西
    Wu Shanghai /ɦue²³/
    Suzhou /ɦue̞¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦuõ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /va³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xuɛ⁴⁴/ 歸~
    Tunxi /uɛ⁴⁴/ 歸~
    Xiang Changsha /fan¹³/ ~價
    Xiangtan /ɸan¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /uan⁴⁵/ 有借有~
    /fan⁴⁵/ ~原
    Hakka Meixian /fan¹¹/ ~原
    Taoyuan /hɑn¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /wan²¹/
    Nanning /wan²¹/
    Hong Kong /wan²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /huan³⁵/
    /hãi³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huaŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xiŋ³³/
    /uiŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /huaŋ⁵⁵/
    /hõi⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /huaŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (70)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠuan/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦʷᵚan/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɐn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwaɨn/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuan/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣwan/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣwan/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    huán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwæn ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ʷˁ<r>en/
    English turn around; return

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 16230
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡʷraːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to return to a place; to go back to a place
      /   ―  huánjiā  ―  to return home
      /   ―  huánxiāng  ―  to return to one's hometown
      /   ―  huányuán  ―  to return to the original state, [chemistry] to reduce
      /   ―  huán  ―  to resume secular life
    2. to return an object; to give back
      /   ―  chánghuán  ―  to reimburse
      /   ―  huánshū  ―  to return the books (to the library)
      /   ―  qiàn qián bù huán  ―  to owe money (without the intention of paying back)
      手機 [MSC, trad.]
      手机 [MSC, simp.]
      Bǎ wǒ de shǒujī huán gěi wǒ. [Pinyin]
      Give my mobile back to me.
    3. to do or give something in return
      /   ―  huánzuǐ  ―  to retort
      /   ―  huánshǒu  ―  to hit back
      /   ―  huán  ―  to present a gift in return
      /   ―  huán  ―  to fight back
      /   ―  huánjià  ―  to make a counter-offer buying price
      以眼以牙 [MSC, trad.]
      以眼以牙 [MSC, simp.]
      yǐ yǎn huán yǎn, yǐ yá huán [Pinyin]
      [literally] an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth; tit for tat
    4. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • huan1/huan5/han5 - vernacular;
    • huang5/huêng5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xai³⁵/
    Harbin /xai⁵³/
    /xai²⁴/
    Tianjin /xai⁴⁵/ ~有
    Jinan
    Qingdao
    Zhengzhou
    Xi'an
    Xining
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou /xɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang /xai²¹/ ~是
    Kunming
    Nanjing /xae²⁴/
    Hefei
    Jin Taiyuan
    Pingyao
    Hohhot /xæ̃³¹/ ~不走
    Wu Shanghai /ɦe²³/
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Hui Shexian /uɛ⁴⁴/ ~有
    Tunxi /uːə⁴⁴/ ~要
    Xiang Changsha /xai¹³/ 副詞
    Xiangtan
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian /han¹¹/ ~有
    Taoyuan
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Nanning
    Hong Kong
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan)
    Fuzhou (Min Dong)
    Jian'ou (Min Bei)
    Shantou (Min Nan)
    Haikou (Min Nan)

    Definitions[edit]

    1. still; yet; indicates that the phenomenon or observation still exists or the action is still ongoing
      /   ―  hái méi lái.  ―  He hasn't come yet.
      怎麼 / 怎么  ―  Nǐ zěnme hái méi dào?  ―  Why are you still not here?
      工作 [MSC, trad.]
      工作 [MSC, simp.]
      Shí diǎn le, tā hái zài gōngzuò. [Pinyin]
      It's ten o'clock already and he is still working.
      那麼漂亮 [MSC, trad.]
      那么漂亮 [MSC, simp.]
      Jǐ nián bù jiàn, tā hái shì nàme piàoliàng. [Pinyin]
      She is still very beautiful after all these years.
    2. even more; indicates an increase from a certain level or a supplement
      今年去年 / 今年去年  ―  Jīnnián bǐ qùnián hái lěng.  ―  This year is even colder than last year.
      考試上課 / 考试上课  ―  Kǎoshì wán hái yào shàngkè.  ―  (I) still have classes after the exams.
      工作 [MSC, trad.]
      工作 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā péi le yī dà bǐ qián, hái diū le gōngzuò. [Pinyin]
      He lost a lot of money and even his job.
    3. (before adjectives, mostly positive) passably; (surprisingly) quite
      成績可以 / 成绩可以  ―  Wǒ de chéngjì hái kěyǐ.  ―  I have a passable grade.
      屋子收拾乾淨 [MSC, trad.]
      屋子收拾干净 [MSC, simp.]
      Wūzi bù dà, shōushi dé dǎo hái qiánjìng. [Pinyin]
      It's quite clean for such a small room.
      孩子懂事 [MSC, trad.]
      孩子懂事 [MSC, simp.]
      Háizi bù dà, hái tǐng dǒngshì de. [Pinyin]
      The small kid is surprisingly quite sensible.
      蛋糕好吃 [MSC, trad.]
      蛋糕好吃 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè dàngāo hái tǐng hǎochī de. [Pinyin]
      That was a pretty tasty cake.
    4. (often in rhetorical questions) indicates condition and contrast, interchangeable with 都; even
      何況 [MSC, trad.]
      何况 [MSC, simp.]
      hái bān bù dòng, hékuàng wǒ ne? [Pinyin]
      Even you can't move it, let alone me.
    5. indicates unexpectedness; really
      辦法 / 办法  ―  hái zhēn yǒu bànfǎ.  ―  Surprisingly he has a way to do this.
    6. indicates past events; emphasising earliness
      以前我們研究這個方案 [MSC, trad.]
      以前我们研究这个方案 [MSC, simp.]
      Hái zài jǐ nián yǐqián, wǒmen jiù yánjiū guò zhège fāng'àn. [Pinyin]
      The proposal has been studied by us a couple of years ago (and now you made the suggestion to study it).
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of (“still; yet”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Jiedian
    Xi'an
    Lanzhou
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Nantong
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Shunde
    Foshan
    Zhongshan
    Dongguan
    Hong Kong (Weitou)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Taishan
    Kaiping
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Gan Nanchang
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen 猶閣
    Quanzhou 猶閣
    Zhangzhou 猶閣
    Taipei 猶閣
    Kaohsiung 猶閣
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Loudi

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (17)
    Final () (78)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ziuᴇn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /zʷiɛn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /zjuæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /zwian/
    Li
    Rong
    /ziuɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /zĭwɛn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /zi̯wɛn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xuán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xuán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ zjwen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-ɢʷen/
    English turn around, return; agile

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 16244
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sɢʷan/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (xuán, “to rotate; to turn around”).
    2. nimble; agile
    3. immediately

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (hwan, seon) (hangeul , )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hoàn)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.