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See also:
U+91CE, 野
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91CE

[U+91CD]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91CF]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 166, +4, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田土弓戈弓 (WGNIN), four-corner 67122, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1291, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40133
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1793, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3683, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91CE

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*laːʔ, *ɦljaʔ
*laːʔ
*ljaʔ
*ljaʔ, *hlja, *ɦljaʔ
*l'aʔ
*l'aʔ, *ɦljaʔ
*ɦljaːʔ
*hlja
*hlja, *ɦljaʔ
*la
*la
*la, *laʔ
*las
*las
*las
*las
*las

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *laːʔ, *ɦljaʔ): semantic  (field) + semantic  (earth) + phonetic  (OC *la, *laʔ).

Etymology[edit]

Various etymologies have been proposed:

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iɛ²¹⁴/
Harbin /iɛ²¹³/
Tianjin /ie¹³/
Jinan /iə⁵⁵/
Qingdao /iə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /iɛ⁵³/
Xi'an /iɛ⁵³/
Xining /i⁵³/
Yinchuan /ie⁵³/
Lanzhou /iə⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /iɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ie⁴²/
Chengdu /ie⁵³/
Guiyang /ie⁴²/
Kunming /iɛ⁵³/
Nanjing /ie²¹²/
Hefei /i²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /ie⁵³/
Pingyao /ie̞⁵³/
Hohhot /ie⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ɦia²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɑ³¹/
Hangzhou /ʔie̞⁵³/
/ʔi⁵³/
Wenzhou /i³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ie³⁵/
/ia³⁵/
Tunxi /ia²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ie⁴¹/
/ia⁴¹/
Xiangtan /iɒ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /iɑ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ia⁴⁴/
/ia³¹/
Taoyuan /ʒɑ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɛ²³/
Nanning /jɛ²⁴/
Hong Kong /jɛ¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ia⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ia³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ia²¹/
/ia⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ia⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ze²¹³/
/ia²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (100)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/iaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiaX/
Li
Rong
/iaX/
Wang
Li
/jĭaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯aX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ X ›
Old
Chinese
/*lAʔ/
English open country

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 15722
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*laːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. countryside; field; outskirts; wilderness
  2. plain; open country; open space
  3. area; region; boundary
  4. (among) the people; not in power; out of office
  5. unadorned; unaffected; simple; plain
  6. wild; not domesticated; stray
  7. feral; untamed; unrestrained
  8. rough; coarse; violent; boorish; rude
  9. unofficial; informal; illegal
  10. (literary or Min Dong, Xiamen and Quanzhou Min Nan) very; quite

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (25)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨʌX/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɔX/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiɔX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨə̆X/
Li
Rong
/ʑiɔX/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭoX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯woX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shù
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 15729
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦljaʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Original form of (shù, “field; field hut; detached residence”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. field, plain
  2. natural, pristine
  3. rough
  4. bare, open
  5. extant, scope, sphere
  6. civil, non-governmental
  7. baseball ground
  8. Shimotsuke Province

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Etymology 1[edit]

⟨no1/nʷo//no/

From Old Japanese.

Appears to be distinct from (/no2/ → no, possessive/case-marker particle) and (/no2/ → no, arrow shaft).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji no)

  1. an area, field
    Synonyms: 野原 (nohara), 野っ原 (noppara), 野良 (nora)
  2. the hidden part of a structure
    Antonym: 化粧 (keshō)
Derived terms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji no-)

  1. wild
     () (うさぎ)
    nousagi
    wild rabbit
  2. rustic, unsophisticated
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Proverbs[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

*/nʷə//nu/

The Eastern Old Japanese pronunciation, attested in poems of the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji nu)

  1. (regional, obsolete) Same with (​no) above
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4387), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       () () ()児手 (このて) (がしは)のほほまれどあやに (かな)しみ ()きて () () [Modern spelling]
      chiba no nu no konote-gashiwa no hohomaredo aya ni kanashimi okite ta ga kinu
      (please add an English translation of this example)
  2. (historical) Misspelling of (no), from the view of an Edo-period scholar of the Man'yōshū and other waka poetry
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC jiaX).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji ya)

  1. an area, field
    Synonyms: 野原 (nohara), 野っ原 (noppara), 野良 (nora)
  2. a private or civil matter
    Synonym: 民間 (minkan)
Idioms[edit]

Adjectival noun[edit]

(-nari inflection, hiragana , rōmaji ya)

  1. (archaic) rustic, unsophisticated

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ya) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer ya, Yale ya)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

()

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.