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See also:
U+91CE, 野
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91CE

[U+91CD]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91CF]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
野-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 166, +4, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田土弓戈弓 (WGNIN), four-corner 67122, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1291, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40133
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1793, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3683, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91CE

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *laːʔ, *ɦljaʔ): semantic (field) + semantic (earth) + phonetic (OC *la, *laʔ).

Etymology 1[edit]

Various etymologies have been proposed:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Meixian:
    • ya1 - vernacular;
    • ya3 - literary.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • iǎ - literary;
    • ià - vernacular.
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • ia3 - vernacular;
    • ie3 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /iɛ²¹⁴/
    Harbin /iɛ²¹³/
    Tianjin /ie¹³/
    Jinan /iə⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /iə⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /iɛ⁵³/
    Xi'an /iɛ⁵³/
    Xining /i⁵³/
    Yinchuan /ie⁵³/
    Lanzhou /iə⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /iɤ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ie⁴²/
    Chengdu /ie⁵³/
    Guiyang /ie⁴²/
    Kunming /iɛ⁵³/
    Nanjing /ie²¹²/
    Hefei /i²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /ie⁵³/
    Pingyao /ie̞⁵³/
    Hohhot /ie⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦia²³/
    Suzhou /ɦiɑ³¹/
    Hangzhou /ʔie̞⁵³/
    /ʔi⁵³/
    Wenzhou /i³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ie³⁵/
    /ia³⁵/
    Tunxi /ia²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ie⁴¹/
    /ia⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /iɒ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /iɑ²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /ia⁴⁴/
    /ia³¹/
    Taoyuan /ʒɑ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jɛ²³/
    Nanning /jɛ²⁴/
    Hong Kong /jɛ¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ia⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ia³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ia²¹/
    /ia⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ia⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ze²¹³/
    /ia²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (100)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jiaX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiaX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /iaX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jiaX/
    Li
    Rong
    /iaX/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭaX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯aX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ X ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*lAʔ/
    English open country

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 15722
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*laːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. countryside; field; outskirts; wilderness
    2. plain; open country; open space
    3. area; region; boundary
    4. (among) the people; not in power; out of office
    5. unadorned; unaffected; simple; plain
    6. wild; not domesticated; stray
    7. feral; untamed; unrestrained
    8. rough; coarse; violent; boorish; rude
    9. unofficial; informal; illegal
    10. (literary or Min Dong, Xiamen and Quanzhou Hokkien, Wu) very; quite
    11. A surname​.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shù
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 15729
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɦljaʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Original form of (shù, “field; field hut; detached residence”).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“thing; matter; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    As the original form of :

    Compounds[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Etymology 1[edit]

    ⟨no1/nʷo//no/

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (no

    1. an area, field
      Synonyms: 野原 (nohara), 野っ原 (noppara), 野良 (nora)
    2. the hidden part of a structure
      Antonym: 化粧 (keshō)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    () (no-

    1. wild
      ()(うさぎ)nousagiwild rabbit
    2. rustic, unsophisticated
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    () (No

    1. A surname​.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC jiaX).

    Affix[edit]

    () (ya

    1. field, plain
    2. natural, pristine
    3. rough
    4. bare, open
    5. extant, scope, sphere
    6. civil, non-governmental
    7. (baseball) ground
    8. Short for 下野 (Shimotsuke no kuni): Shimotsuke Province
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ya

    1. an area, field
      Synonyms: 野原 (nohara), 野っ原 (noppara), 野良 (nora)
    2. a private or civil matter
      Synonym: 民間 (minkan)
    Idioms[edit]

    Adjectival noun[edit]

    () (ya-nari

    1. (archaic) rustic, unsophisticated
    Inflection[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC jiaX). Recorded as Middle Korean 야〯 (Yale: ) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ja̠ː]
    • Phonetic hangeul: [ː]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (deul ya))

    1. Hanja form? of (wild; savage; untamed).
    2. Hanja form? of (area; field).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨʌX).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 농막() (nongmak seo))

    1. Original form of .

    Noun[edit]

    Hanja in this term

    (ya) (hangeul )

    1. (in headlines) Short for 野黨(야당) (yadang, the opposition party).
      지도 긴급 회의 개최
      Ya jidobu gin-geup hoe-ui gaechoe
      The leaders of the opposition party held an emergency conference.

    Usage notes[edit]

    A common convention in news headlines, this is almost always written solely in the Hanja form, even in contemporary Korean text otherwise devoid of any Hanja.

    Antonyms[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *no.

    Pronunciation appears to be distinct from (no2, possessive and case-marker particle).

    Noun[edit]

    (no1) (kana )

    1. an area, field
    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (no)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    The second sense is based on 国学 (kokugaku) scholars' reading of man'yōgana , , , etc. as ⟨nu⟩ instead of ⟨no1 before regional differences in Old Japanese terms of were discovered.

    Noun[edit]

    (nu) (kana )

    1. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) an area, field
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4387), text here
        知波乃乃古乃弖加之波能保保麻例等阿夜爾加奈之美於枳弖他加枳奴
        Tiba-no2-nu no2 ko1no2te-gasipa no2 popomaredo2 aya ni kanasimi1 oki1te ta ga ki1nu
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. Misspelling of (no1), from the view of an Edo-period scholar of the Man'yōshū and other Old Japanese literature
    Derived terms[edit]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: (()(giả)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: [2][4][6], nhả[1][2], [1]

    1. Hán tự form of (wild; savage).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]