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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 166 +4, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田土弓戈弓 (WGNIN), four-corner 67122, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1291, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40133
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1793, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3683, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91CE

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *laːʔ, *ɦljaʔ): semantic  ‎(field) + semantic  ‎(earth) + phonetic  ‎(OC *la, *laʔ).

Etymology[edit]

Various etymologies have been proposed:

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iɛ²¹⁴/
Harbin /iɛ²¹³/
Tianjin /ie¹³/
Jinan /iə⁵⁵/
Qingdao /iə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /iɛ⁵³/
Xi'an /iɛ⁵³/
Xining /i⁵³/
Yinchuan /ie⁵³/
Lanzhou /iə⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /iɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ie⁴²/
Chengdu /ie⁵³/
Guiyang /ie⁴²/
Kunming /iɛ⁵³/
Nanjing /ie²¹²/
Hefei /i²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /ie⁵³/
Pingyao /ie̞⁵³/
Hohhot /ie⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ɦia²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɑ³¹/
Hangzhou /ʔie̞⁵³/
/ʔi⁵³/
Wenzhou /i³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ie³⁵/
/ia³⁵/
Tunxi /ia²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ie⁴¹/
/ia⁴¹/
Xiangtan /iɒ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /iɑ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ia⁴⁴/
/ia³¹/
Taoyuan /ʒɑ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɛ²³/
Nanning /jɛ²⁴/
Hong Kong /jɛ¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ia⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ia³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ia²¹/
/ia⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ia⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ze²¹³/
/ia²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (100)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/iaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiaX/
Li
Rong
/iaX/
Wang
Li
/jĭaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯aX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ X ›
Old
Chinese
/*lAʔ/
English open country

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 15722
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*laːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. countryside; field; outskirts; wilderness
  2. plain; open country; open space
  3. area; region; boundary
  4. (among) the people; not in power; out of office
  5. unadorned; unaffected; simple; plain
  6. wild; not domesticated; stray
  7. feral; untamed; unrestrained
  8. rough; coarse; violent; boorish; rude
  9. unofficial; informal; illegal
  10. (literary or Min Dong, Xiamen and Quanzhou Min Nan) very; quite

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (25)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨʌX/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɔX/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiɔX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨə̆X/
Li
Rong
/ʑiɔX/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭoX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯woX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shù
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 15729
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦljaʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Original form of (“field; field hut; detached residence”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji no)

  1. area
  2. field

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ya) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ya, Yale ya)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, lương, nhựợng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.