pen

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English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English pen, penne (enclosure for animals), from Old English penn (enclosure, fold, pen), from Proto-Germanic *pennō, *pannijō (pin, bolt, nail, tack), from Proto-Indo-European *bend- (pointed peg, nail, edge).

Sense “prison” originally figurative extension to “enclosure for persons” (1845), later influenced by penitentiary (prison), being analyzed as an abbreviation (1884).[1]

Noun[edit]

pen (plural pens)

  1. An enclosure (enclosed area) used to contain domesticated animals, especially sheep or cattle.
    There are two steers in the third pen.
  2. (slang) Penitentiary, i.e. a state or federal prison for convicted felons.
    They caught him with a stolen horse, and he wound up in the pen again.
  3. (baseball) The bullpen.
    Two righties are up in the pen.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English pennen, from Old English *pennian (to close, lock, bolt, attested in onpennian (to open)), derived from penn (see above). Akin to Low German pennen (to secure a door with a bolt).

Verb[edit]

pen (third-person singular simple present pens, present participle penning, simple past and past participle penned or pent)

  1. (transitive) To enclose in a pen.
Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

A ballpoint pen, showing assembly.

From Middle English penne, from Anglo-Norman penne, from Old French penne, from Latin penna (feather), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to rush, fly) (from which petition). Proto-Indo-European base also root of *petra-, from which Ancient Greek πτερόν (pterón, wing) (whence pterodactyl), Sanskrit पत्रम् (patram, wing, feather), Old Church Slavonic перо (pero, pen), Old Norse fjǫðr, Old English feðer (Modern English feather);[1] note the /p/ → /f/ Germanic sound change.

See feather and πέτομαι (pétomai) for more.

Noun[edit]

pen (plural pens)

  1. A tool, originally made from a feather but now usually a small tubular instrument, containing ink used to write or make marks.
    He took notes with a pen.
  2. (figuratively) A writer, or his style.
    He has a sharp pen.
  3. (colloquial) Marks of ink left by a pen.
    He's unhappy because he got pen on his new shirt.
  4. A light pen.
  5. (zoology) The internal cartilage skeleton of a squid, shaped like a pen.
    • 2017, Danna Staaf, Squid Empire, ForeEdge, →ISBN, page 117:
      A pen is nothing more complex than a decalcified shell, so one mutation of the genes that controlled calcification could be all it took.
  6. (now rare, poetic, dialectal) A feather, especially one of the flight feathers of a bird, angel etc.
  7. (poetic) A wing.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

pen (third-person singular simple present pens, present participle penning, simple past and past participle penned)

  1. (transitive) To write (an article, a book, etc.).

Translations[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Origin uncertain. Compare hen.

Noun[edit]

pen (plural pens)

  1. A female swan.

Translations[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Clipping of penalty.

Noun[edit]

pen (plural pens)

  1. (soccer, slang) Penalty.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Douglas Harper, “pen”, in Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2021.

Anagrams[edit]


Angloromani[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Romani phen, from Sanskrit भगिनी (bhaginī).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈpʰen], [ˈpen], [pʰɛn]

Noun[edit]

pen

  1. sister
    Synonyms: minnipen, rakla
    Sa see pal te pen?
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • pen” in The Manchester Romani Project, Angloromani Dictionary.

Cumbric[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *penn, from Proto-Celtic *kʷennom, of uncertain derivation.

Noun[edit]

pen

  1. head
  2. top, summit

References[edit]

  • Attested in Cumbric toponymic compounds and phrasal names (Pen-y-Ghent)

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From late Old Norse penni, from Latin penna (feather).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /pɛnˀ/, [pʰɛnˀ]

Noun[edit]

pen c (singular definite pennen, plural indefinite penne)

  1. pen
  2. quill
  3. pane, peen
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Adjective[edit]

pen (neuter pent, plural and definite singular attributive pene, comparative penere, superlative (predicative) penest, superlative (attributive) peneste)

  1. Obsolete spelling of pæn

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch penne, ultimately from Latin penna. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pen f (plural pennen, diminutive pennetje n)

  1. pen (writing utensil)
  2. a long feather of a bird
  3. pin
    Synonym: pin

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Afrikaans: pen
  • Indonesian: pen
  • Papiamentu: pen

Anagrams[edit]


Haitian Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French pain (bread)

Noun[edit]

pen

  1. bread

Indonesian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈpɛn]
  • Hyphenation: pèn

Etymology 1[edit]

From Dutch pen, from Latin penna (feather, pen). Doublet of pena.

Noun[edit]

pèn (plural, first-person possessive penku, second-person possessive penmu, third-person possessive pennya)

  1. (nonstandard) alternative form of pena (pen).
  2. (medicine) pin, metal used to fasten or as a bearing.

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

pen

  1. (slang) Syncopic form of pengen

Further reading[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

pen

  1. Rōmaji transcription of ペン

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

pen

  1. Nonstandard spelling of pēn.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of pén.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of pěn.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of pèn.

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Mapudungun[edit]

Verb[edit]

pen (using Raguileo Alphabet)

  1. to see
    Synonym: petun

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Anglo-Norman penne.

Noun[edit]

pen

  1. Alternative form of penne

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old English penn, from Proto-Germanic *pennō.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pen

  1. A enclosed structure for securing animals.
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Mindiri[edit]

Noun[edit]

pen

  1. woman

Further reading[edit]

  • Malcolm Ross, Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia, Pacific Linguistics, series C-98 (1988)

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possibly from French.

Adjective[edit]

pen (neuter singular pent, definite singular and plural pene, comparative penere, indefinite superlative penest, definite superlative peneste)

  1. nice
    pent vær
    nice weather
  2. neat
  3. beautiful, pretty
  4. handsome, good-looking

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possibly from French.

Adjective[edit]

pen (neuter singular pent, definite singular and plural pene, comparative penare, indefinite superlative penast, definite superlative penaste)

  1. nice
    pent vêr
    nice weather
  2. neat
  3. beautiful, pretty
  4. handsome, good-looking

References[edit]


Rade[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French pince.

Noun[edit]

pen

  1. pincers

Tok Pisin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From English paint.

Noun[edit]

pen

  1. paint

Etymology 2[edit]

From English pen.

Noun[edit]

pen

  1. pen

Etymology 3[edit]

From English pain.

Noun[edit]

pen

  1. pain
    • 1989, Buk Baibel long Tok Pisin, Port Moresby: Bible Society of Papua New Guinea, Jenesis 3:16:
      Na God i tokim meri olsem, “Bai mi givim yu bikpela hevi long taim yu gat bel. Na bai yu gat bikpela pen long taim yu karim pikinini. Tasol bai yu gat bikpela laik yet long man bilong yu, na bai em i bosim yu.”
      →New International Version translation
This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. Tok Pisin is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

Volapük[edit]

Noun[edit]

pen (nominative plural pens)

  1. pen

Declension[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Welsh penn, from Proto-Brythonic *penn, from Proto-Celtic *kʷennom.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pen m (plural pennau)

  1. (anatomy) head
  2. chief
  3. top, apex
  4. end, extremity

Related terms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

pen (feminine singular pen, plural pen, equative penned, comparative pennach, superlative pennaf)

  1. head
  2. chief
  3. supreme, principal

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
pen ben mhen phen
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  • pen”, in R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies, 1950–present