pena

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See also: Pena, péna, pená, penà, peña, pěna, and pę́na

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Occitan pena, from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penes)

  1. punishment, penalty
  2. grief, sorrow, pain
  3. a shame, a pity

Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

pena

  1. third-person singular present indicative form of penar
  2. second-person singular imperative form of penar

Galician[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese pena (displacing pẽa), from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ, penalty, fine, bloodmoney), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷoynéh₂.

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment, penalty
    • 1370, Enrique Cal Pardo (ed.), Colección diplomática medieval do arquivo da catedral de Mondoñedo. Santiago: Consello da Cultura Galega, page 103:
      o bispo et esse Ferrand Bonome por si et por sa moller se obligaron su pena de mill mor. da boa moneda para gardaren a vnna parte aa outra todas estas cousas
      the bishop and this Fernando Bonome, for him and for his wife, compromised themselves, under a penalty of a thousand coins, to respect this agreement
    Synonym: castigo
  2. pain; sadness
    • 1370, Ramón Lorenzo (ed.), Crónica troiana, A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 731:
      en guisa que a sua alma ouuese bẽeyçóm et nõ andase en pena
      so that his soul would be blessed and wouldn't wander in pain
    Synonyms: dor, tristura, mágoa
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese pena, from Latin pinna (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly).

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. vanes or blades of a water wheel
    Synonym: aspa
  2. (archaic) feather
    • 1697, Juan Antonio Torrado, Fala o corvo:
      Fala o corbo, escoyten todos:
      Eu veño con asas negras
      Cortando os ventos de longe
      Para chegar à estas festas.
      Oge Apolo me tornou
      En brancas as negras penas,
      Para cantar como o Cisne
      As grandezas de Fonseca.
      The raven speaks, listen everyone:
      "I come with black wings
      Cutting the winds from afar
      To arrive to these feasts.
      Today Apolo turned
      White my black feathers
      For singing, as the Swan,
      The greatness of Fonseca."
    Synonym: pluma
  3. (archaic) pelt
    • 1409, J. L. Pensado Tomé (ed.), Rufus, Jordanus: Tratado de Albeitaria. Santiago de Compostela: Centro Ramón Piñeiro, page 133:
      coito todo ensenbra con pena de gallina
      all of that boiled together with a hen pelt
    Synonym: pelica
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pena do Guerreiro (rock known as "the Warrior"), Carnota, Galicia
Pena Surbia (2116 m) and Pena Trevinca (2127 m), highest mountains in Galicia

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese pena (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria), either from Latin pinna ("feather, wing"; then "merlon, fortress"; then, hypothetically, "rock"), or from Proto-Celtic *kʷennom (head).[1][2] Compare Portuguese penha.

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. boulder, rock
    • 1370, Ramón Lorenzo (ed.), Crónica troiana, A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 688:
      alý se leuãtara hũa pena, que era en çima moy chãa et moyto alta contra o çeo
      there a rock stood, which was very flat at the top and which rose very high
    Synonym: penedo
  2. (archaic, place names) hill, hillock; mountain
    Synonym: cabeza
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • pena” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006-2012.
  • pena” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006-2016.
  • pena” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006-2013.
  • "pena" in Santamarina, Antón (coord.): Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega. <http://ilg.usc.es/TILG/>
  • pena” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.
  1. ^ Cf. Coromines, Joan; Pascual, José A. (1983–1991) , “peña”, in Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico (in Spanish), Madrid: Gredos, →ISBN
  2. ^ García Trabazo, José Virgilio (2016) , “Prelatin Toponymy of Asturies: a critical review in a historical-comparative perspective”, in Lletres Asturianes[1], issue 115, retrieved 14 June 2018, pages 51-71

Guinea-Bissau Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese pena. Cognate with Kabuverdianu péna.

Noun[edit]

pena

  1. feather

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Malay penna, from Portuguese pena (quill), from Old Portuguese pena, from Latin penna and pinna, from Proto-Italic *petnā (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly). Influenced by Dutch pen. Doublet of pen.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈpɛna]
  • Hyphenation: pè‧na

Noun[edit]

pèna (first-person possessive penaku, second-person possessive penamu, third-person possessive penanya)

  1. pen (writing utensil)

Alternative forms[edit]

  • pen (nonstandard)

Synonyms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Italian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpe.na/
  • Hyphenation: pé‧na

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural pene)

  1. sorrow
  2. trouble
  3. worry, anxiety
  4. pity
  5. sentence, penalty, punishment
    Synonyms: castigo, punizione
  6. pain
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

pena

  1. inflection of penare:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Anagrams[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • pena in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Ladin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penes)

  1. penalty, punishment

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pēna f (genitive pēnae); first declension

  1. Alternative form of poena [Mediaeval–early New Latin]

Declension[edit]

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative pēna pēnae
Genitive pēnae pēnārum
Dative pēnae pēnīs
Accusative pēnam pēnās
Ablative pēnā pēnīs
Vocative pēna pēnae

References[edit]

  • pena in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • pena in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • pena in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016

Old Occitan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

Noun[edit]

pena f (oblique plural penas, nominative singular pena, nominative plural penas)

  1. pain; suffering

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Catalan: pena
  • Occitan: pena

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese pena (displacing pẽa), from Latin poena,[1] from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ, penalty, fine, bloodmoney), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷoynéh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment
    Synonyms: castigo, condenação
  2. pain; sadness
    Synonyms: dor, tristeza

Interjection[edit]

pena

  1. pity (what a shame, what a pity)
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese pena, from Latin penna and pinna,[1] from Proto-Italic *petnā (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly).

pena

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. feather
    Synonym: pluma
  2. quill (pen made from a feather)
  3. (dated) Alternative form of penha
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

pena

  1. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present indicative of penar
  2. second-person singular (tu, sometimes used with você) affirmative imperative of penar

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 pena” in Dicionário infopédia da Língua Portuguesa. Porto: Porto Editora, 2003–2021.

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

Noun[edit]

pȅna f (Cyrillic spelling пе̏на)

  1. foam

Declension[edit]


Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pena f (genitive singular peny, nominative plural peny, genitive plural pien, declension pattern of žena)

  1. foam

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • pena in Slovak dictionaries at slovnik.juls.savba.sk

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pẹ́na f

  1. foam

Inflection[edit]

Feminine, a-stem
nominative péna
genitive péne
singular
nominative péna
accusative péno
genitive péne
dative péni
locative péni
instrumental péno

Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpena/, [ˈpe.na]
  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Spanish pena, from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment
    Synonyms: castigo, condena
  2. pain, sadness
    Synonyms: dolor, tristeza
  3. trouble
    Synonyms: problema, dificultad
  4. (Latin America) embarrassment
    Synonym: vergüenza
  5. pity
    Synonym: lástima
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

pena

  1. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of penar.
  2. Formal second-person singular (usted) present indicative form of penar.
  3. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of penar.

Further reading[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Italian penna.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpɛnɑ/
  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

Noun[edit]

pena (definite accusative penayı, plural penalar)

  1. (music) plectrum

Declension[edit]

Inflection
Nominative pena
Definite accusative penayı
Singular Plural
Nominative pena penalar
Definite accusative penayı penaları
Dative penaya penalara
Locative penada penalarda
Ablative penadan penalardan
Genitive penanın penaların

Synonyms[edit]


Venetian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin paene. Compare Italian appena.

Adverb[edit]

pena

  1. hardly

Volapük[edit]

Noun[edit]

pena

  1. genitive singular of pen