pena

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See also: Pena, péna, pená, penà, peña, pěna, pęna, and pę́na

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin poena.

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penes)

  1. punishment, penalty
  2. grief, sorrow, pain
  3. a shame, a pity

Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

pena

  1. third-person singular present indicative form of penar
  2. second-person singular imperative form of penar

Galician[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese pena (displacing pẽa), from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ, penalty, fine, bloodmoney), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷoynéh₂.

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment, penalty
    • 1370, Enrique Cal Pardo (ed.), Colección diplomática medieval do arquivo da catedral de Mondoñedo. Santiago: Consello da Cultura Galega, page 103:
      o bispo et esse Ferrand Bonome por si et por sa moller se obligaron su pena de mill mor. da boa moneda para gardaren a vnna parte aa outra todas estas cousas
      the bishop and this Fernando Bonome, for him and for his wife, compromised themselves, under a penalty of a thousand coins, to respect this agreement
  2. pain; sadness
    • 1370, Ramón Lorenzo (ed.), Crónica troiana, A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 731:
      en guisa que a sua alma ouuese bẽeyçóm et nõ andase en pena
      so that his soul would be blessed and wouldn't wander in pain
Synonyms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese pena, from Latin pinna (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly).

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. vanes or blades of a water wheel
  2. (archaic) feather
  3. (archaic) pelt
    • 1409, J. L. Pensado Tomé (ed.), Rufus, Jordanus: Tratado de Albeitaria. Santiago de Compostela: Centro Ramón Piñeiro, page 133:
      coito todo ensenbra con pena de gallina
      all of that boiled together with a hen pelt
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pena do Guerreiro (rock known as "the Warrior"), Carnota, Galicia

Either from Latin pinna ("feather, wing"; then "merlon, fortress"; then, hypothetically, "rock"), or from Proto-Celtic *kʷennom (head).[1]

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. boulder, rock
    • 1370, Ramón Lorenzo (ed.), Crónica troiana, A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 688:
      alý se leuãtara hũa pena, que era en çima moy chãa et moyto alta contra o çeo
      there a rock stood, which was very flat at the top and which rose very high
Derived terms[edit]
  • penedo (boulder, rocky outcrop)

References[edit]

  • pena” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006-2012.
  • pena” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006-2016.
  • pena” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006-2013.
  • "pena" in Santamarina, Antón (coord.): Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega. <http://ilg.usc.es/TILG/>
  • pena” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega. <http://ilg.usc.es/Tesouro>
  1. ^ Compare Coromines, Joan; Pascual, José A. (1991–1997). Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico. Madrid: Gredos, s.v. peña.

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Dutch pen

Noun[edit]

pena

  1. pen (writing utensil)

Synonyms[edit]


Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin poena.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpena/, [ˈpeː.na]
  • Hyphenation: pé‧na

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural pene)

  1. sorrow
  2. trouble
  3. worry, anxiety
  4. pity
  5. sentence, penalty, punishment
  6. pain

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

pena

  1. third-person singular present indicative of penare
  2. second-person singular imperative of penare

Anagrams[edit]


Ladin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin poena.

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penes)

  1. penalty, punishment

Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pēna f (genitive pēnae); first declension

  1. Alternative form of poena [Mediaeval–early New Latin]

Declension[edit]

First declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative pēna pēnae
genitive pēnae pēnārum
dative pēnae pēnīs
accusative pēnam pēnās
ablative pēnā pēnīs
vocative pēna pēnae

References[edit]

  • du Cange, Charles (1883), “pena”, in G. A. Louis Henschel, Pierre Carpentier, Léopold Favre, editors, Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (in Latin), Niort: L. Favre
  • pena in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français [Illustrated Latin-French Dictionary], Hachette
  • pena in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[1], pre-publication website, 2005-2016

Old Occitan[edit]

Noun[edit]

pena f (oblique plural penas, nominative singular pena, nominative plural penas)

  1. pain; suffering

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese pena (displacing pẽa), from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ, penalty, fine, bloodmoney), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷoynéh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment
  2. pain; sadness
Synonyms[edit]

Interjection[edit]

pena

  1. pity (what a shame, what a pity)
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese pena, from Latin penna and pinna, from Proto-Italic *petnā (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly).

pena

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. feather
  2. quill (pen made from a feather)
  3. (dated) Alternative form of penha
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

pena

  1. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present indicative of penar
  2. second-person singular (tu, sometimes used with você) affirmative imperative of penar

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

Noun[edit]

pȅna f (Cyrillic spelling пе̏на)

  1. foam

Declension[edit]


Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

pena f (genitive singular peny, nominative plural peny, genitive plural pien, declension pattern of žena)

  1. foam

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • pena in Slovak dictionaries at korpus.sk

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

péna f (genitive péne, uncountable)

  1. foam

Declension[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin poena.

Noun[edit]

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment
  2. pain, sadness
  3. trouble
  4. (Latin America) embarrassment
  5. pity

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

pena

  1. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of penar.
  2. Formal second-person singular (usted) present indicative form of penar.
  3. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of penar.

Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈpɛnɑ]
  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

Noun[edit]

pena (definite accusative penayı, plural penalar)

  1. (music) plectrum

Declension[edit]

Inflection
Nominative pena
Definite accusative penayı
Singular Plural
Nominative pena penalar
Definite accusative penayı penaları
Dative penaya penalara
Locative penada penalarda
Ablative penadan penalardan
Genitive penanın penaların

Synonyms[edit]


Venetian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare Italian appena.

Adverb[edit]

pena

  1. hardly