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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]


From *peth₂- (to fly) +‎ *-r̥ (r/n-stem suffix).


*péth₂r̥ n

  1. wing
  2. feather


Athematic, proterokinetic
singular collective
nominative *péth₂r̥ *péth₂ōr
genitive *pth₂éns *pth₂nés
singular dual plural collective
nominative *péth₂r̥ *péth₂ōr
vocative *péth₂r̥ *péth₂ōr
accusative *péth₂r̥ *péth₂ōr
genitive *pth₂éns *pth₂nés
ablative *pth₂éns *pth₂nés
dative *pth₂éney *pth₂néy
locative *pth₂én, *pth₂éni *pth₂én, *pth₂éni
instrumental *pth₂énh₁ *pth₂néh₁


  • Anatolian:
    • Hittite: 𒁁𒋻 n (pát-tar /pattar/, wing), 𒁁𒁕𒈾𒀸 (pád-da-na-aš /pattanaš/,[2]
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: թեր (tʿer, *wing, *feather; *leaf; side), թերթ (tʿertʿ, leaf), թիթեռն (tʿitʿeṙn, butterfly) < *pter-
      • Armenian: թեր (tʿer, leaf)
    • Old Armenian: թռչիմ (tʿiṙ-, to fly) < *ptēr-
    • Old Armenian: փետուր (pʿetur, feather) (possibly; or a borrowing from other descendants)
  • Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Slavic: *pero (possibly) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *ɸetnos (see there for further descendants)
  • Celtic:
  • Proto-Germanic: *feþrō (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic:
  • Proto-Italic: *petnā[3]
    • Latin: penna (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford Linguistics), New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 179
  2. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “(UZU)pattas / pattan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 761-763
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “penna”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 458

Further reading[edit]

  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “πτερόν”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1248
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 286–294