castigo

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See also: castigó and castigò

Asturian[edit]

Verb[edit]

castigo

  1. first-person singular present indicative of castigar

Catalan[edit]

Verb[edit]

castigo

  1. first-person singular present indicative form of castigar

Italian[edit]

Noun[edit]

castigo m (plural castighi)

  1. punishment

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

castigo

  1. first-person singular present indicative of castigare

Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From castus (pure, virtuous) +‎ -igō (act, make), the latter a suffixal form of agō. Related to careō (I lack), cassus (hollow, lacking). The long -ī- may be explained as the effect of an unattested i-stem noun *castis ("purity, virtue"), formed from the root cas- + -tis from Proto-Indo-European *-tis, cf. the long ī in vectīgal, fūstīgō, fatīgō, perīculum.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

castīgō (present infinitive castīgāre, perfect active castīgāvī, supine castīgātum); first conjugation

  1. I castigate, chastise, reprove, punish
    Qui bene amat, bene castigat.
    Spare the rod and spoil the child. (lit. He, who loves well, castigates well).
    • c. 45 BCE, Cicero, Tusculanes 3.64:
      Pueros vero matres et magistri castigare etiam solent, nec verbis solum, sed etiam verberibus. Si quid in domestico luctu hilarius ab is factum est aut dictum, plorare cogunt. Quid?
      Mothers and teachers are used to chastise children not only with words, but also with hits of the rod. If the children do or say something rather "cheerful" in a small argument, they make them cry. Why?
  2. I rebuke, reprimand
    • c. 35 CE – 100 CE, Quintilian, Institutiones 2.2.5:
      Plurimus ei de honesto ac bono sermo sit: nam quo saepius monuerit, hoc rarius castigabit.
      May his [the ideal rhetoric teacher's] discussion be very often about what is honourable, good: the more he reminds the student, the less he will reprimand the student.
  3. I correct, amend

Conjugation[edit]

   Conjugation of castīgō (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present castīgō castīgās castīgat castīgāmus castīgātis castīgant
imperfect castīgābam castīgābās castīgābat castīgābāmus castīgābātis castīgābant
future castīgābō castīgābis castīgābit castīgābimus castīgābitis castīgābunt
perfect castīgāvī castīgāvistī castīgāvit castīgāvimus castīgāvistis castīgāvērunt, castīgāvēre
pluperfect castīgāveram castīgāverās castīgāverat castīgāverāmus castīgāverātis castīgāverant
future perfect castīgāverō castīgāveris castīgāverit castīgāverimus castīgāveritis castīgāverint
passive present castīgor castīgāris, castīgāre castīgātur castīgāmur castīgāminī castīgantur
imperfect castīgābar castīgābāris, castīgābāre castīgābātur castīgābāmur castīgābāminī castīgābantur
future castīgābor castīgāberis, castīgābere castīgābitur castīgābimur castīgābiminī castīgābuntur
perfect castīgātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect castīgātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect castīgātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present castīgem castīgēs castīget castīgēmus castīgētis castīgent
imperfect castīgārem castīgārēs castīgāret castīgārēmus castīgārētis castīgārent
perfect castīgāverim castīgāverīs castīgāverit castīgāverīmus castīgāverītis castīgāverint
pluperfect castīgāvissem castīgāvissēs castīgāvisset castīgāvissēmus castīgāvissētis castīgāvissent
passive present castīger castīgēris, castīgēre castīgētur castīgēmur castīgēminī castīgentur
imperfect castīgārer castīgārēris, castīgārēre castīgārētur castīgārēmur castīgārēminī castīgārentur
perfect castīgātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect castīgātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present castīgā castīgāte
future castīgātō castīgātō castīgātōte castīgantō
passive present castīgāre castīgāminī
future castīgātor castīgātor castīgantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives castīgāre castīgāvisse castīgātūrum esse castīgārī castīgātum esse castīgātum īrī
participles castīgāns castīgātūrus castīgātus castīgandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
castīgandī castīgandō castīgandum castīgandō castīgātum castīgātū

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • castigo in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879
  • castigo in Charlton T. Lewis, An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1891
  • castigo in Gaffiot, Félix, Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette, 1934
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden, Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co., 1894
    • (ambiguous) a stern critic of morals: severus morum castigator

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From castigar (to punish), from Old Portuguese castigar, from Latin castīgāre (to punish).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

castigo m (plural castigos)

  1. punishment (penalty to punish wrongdoing)
    crime e castigocrime and punishment
    Synonym: pena
  2. (figuratively) something which causes suffering
  3. grounding (state of being confined by one’s parents, as punishment)

Related terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

castigo

  1. first-person singular (eu) present indicative of castigar

Spanish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From castigar, from Latin castigāre.

Noun[edit]

castigo m (plural castigos)

  1. punishment
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Verb[edit]

castigo

  1. First-person singular (yo) present indicative form of castigar.