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  1. conditional of peni


Alternative forms[edit]


From Proto-Italic *penos, from Proto-Indo-European *pén-os (food), from *pen-. Compare penes, Lithuanian penė́ti (to feed).[1]



penus m, f (variously declined, genitive penī or penūs); second declension, fourth declension
penus n (genitive penoris); third declension

  1. Provisions, food
  2. The innermost part of a temple of Vesta, the sanctuary


Second declension.
Case Singular Plural
nominative penus penī
genitive penī penōrum
dative penō penīs
accusative penum penōs
ablative penō penīs
vocative pene penī
Third declension neuter.
Case Singular Plural
nominative penus penora
genitive penoris penorum
dative penorī penoribus
accusative penus penora
ablative penore penoribus
vocative penus penora
Fourth declension.
Case Singular Plural
nominative penus penūs
genitive penūs penuum
dative penuī penibus
accusative penum penūs
ablative penū penibus
vocative penus penūs

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “penus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 458-459

Further reading[edit]

  • penus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • penus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • du Cange, Charles (1883), “penus”, in G. A. Louis Henschel, Pierre Carpentier, Léopold Favre, editors, Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (in Latin), Niort: L. Favre
  • penus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français [Illustrated Latin-French Dictionary], Hachette

Old French[edit]


peine +‎ -us


penus m (oblique and nominative feminine singular penuse)

  1. painful
    • circa 1150, Unknown author, La Chanson de Roland:
      « Deus, » dist li reis, « si penuse est ma vie ! »
      "God!" said the king, "so painful is my life!"