penitentiary

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Medieval Latin penitentiaria (place of penitence), term used by the Quakers in Pennsylvania during the 1790s, describing a place for penitents to dwell upon their sins.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • enPR: pĕn'·ĭ·tĕnʹ·shə·rē, IPA(key): /ˌpɛnɪˈtɛnʃəɹi/

Noun[edit]

penitentiary (plural penitentiaries)

  1. (US) A state or federal prison for convicted felons.
  2. A priest in the Roman Catholic Church who administers the sacrament of penance.
  3. (obsolete) One who prescribes the rules and measures of penance.
    • Francis Bacon
      Upon the loss of Urbin, the duke's undoubted right, no penitentiary, though he had enjoined him never so straight pennance to expiate his first offence, would have counselled him to have given over pursuit of his right, which he prosperously re-obtained.
  4. (obsolete) One who does penance.
    • Hammond
      To maintain a painful fight against the law of sin, is the work of the penitentiary.
  5. (obsolete) A small building in a monastery, or a part of a church, where penitents confessed.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Shipley to this entry?)
  6. (obsolete) An office of the papal court which examines cases of conscience, confession, absolution from vows, etc., and delivers decisions, dispensations, etc.; run by a cardinal called the Grand Penitentiary who is appointed by the pope.
  7. (obsolete) An officer in some dioceses since 1215, vested with power from the bishop to absolve in cases reserved to him.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (prison): pen

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Further reading[edit]

Adjective[edit]

penitentiary (not comparable)

  1. Of or relating to penance; penitential.
    • Archbishop Bramhall:
      A penitentiary tax.
  2. Of or relating to the punishment of criminals.
    • Blackstone:
      Penitentiary houses.

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